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Yellow Sweetclower, Common Melilot, Melilotus officinalis….Cỏ Ba Lá ngọt ….#4
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Image by Vietnam Plants & The USA. plants
Taken on March 28, 2012 in Waco city, Texas state, Southern of The United States of America.

Vietnamese named : Cỏ Ba Lá ngọt .
Common names : Yellow Sweetclower, Common Melilot, Yellow Melilot, Ribbed Melilot.
Scientist name : Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. Sweetclover.
Synonyms :
Familly : Fabaceae – Pea family
Kingdom : Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom : Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision : Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division : Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class : Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass : Rosidae
Order :" Fabales
Genus : Melilotus Mill. – sweetclover
Species : Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. – sweetclover

**** www.bachkhoatrithuc.vn/encyclopedia/4668-02-6339309819081… :

_______________________________________________________

**** plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=meof
**** en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melilotus_officinalis

**** www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Melilotus+officinalis : Click on link to read enough information, please.
SynonymsM. arvensis.
Known Hazards The dried leaves can be toxic. though the fresh leaves are quite safe to use. This is possibly due to the presence of coumarin, the substance that gives some dried plants the smell of new mown hay, if taken internally it can prevent the blood clotting.
HabitatsGrassy fields and roadsides, avoiding acid soils[17].
RangeEurope to E. Asia. Naturalized in Britain.

Physical Characteristics
Melilotus officinalis is a ANNUAL/BIENNIAL growing to 1.2 m (4ft) by 0.7 m (2ft 4in).
It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.It can fix Nitrogen.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Habitats
Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root; Seedpod.
Edible Uses: Condiment.

Root[46, 105, 172]. Consumed as a food by the Kalmuks[183]. Young shoots – cooked. Used like asparagus[183]. Young leaves are eaten in salads[13]. The leaves and seedpods are cooked as a vegetable[8, 55, 172]. They are used as a flavouring[46]. Only fresh leaves should be used, see the notes above on toxicity[62]. The crushed dried leaves can be used as a vanilla flavouring in puddings, pastries etc[177, 183, 238]. Caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity. Flowers – raw or cooked[172]. The flowers and seeds are used as a flavouring[2]. The flowers also give an aromatic quality to some tisanes[7].

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antispasmodic; Aromatic; Carminative; Diuretic; Emollient; Expectorant; Ophthalmic; Vulnerary.

Melilot, used either externally or internally, can help treat varicose veins and haemorrhoids though it requires a long-term treatment for the effect to be realised[254]. Use of the plant also helps to reduce the risk of phlebitis and thrombosis[254]. Melilot contains coumarins and, as the plant dries or spoils, these become converted to dicoumarol, a powerful anticoagulant[254]. Thus the plant should be used with some caution, it should not be prescribed to patients with a history of poor blood clotting or who are taking warfarin medication[238]. See also the notes above on toxicity[21]. The flowering plant is antispasmodic, aromatic, carminative, diuretic, emollient, mildly expectorant, mildly sedative and vulnerary[4, 7, 9, 13, 21, 238, 240]. An infusion is used in the treatment of sleeplessness, nervous tension, neuralgia, palpitations, varicose veins, painful congestive menstruation, in the prevention of thrombosis, flatulence and intestinal disorders[7, 238]. Externally, it is used to treat eye inflammations, rheumatic pains, swollen joints, severe bruising, boils and erysipelas, whilst a decoction is added to the bath-water[9, 238]. The flowering plant is harvested in the summer and can be dried for later use[7]. A distilled water obtained from the flowering tops is an effective treatment for conjunctivitis[7].
Other Uses
Green manure; Repellent.

The leaves contain coumarin and they release the pleasant smell of newly mown hay when they are drying[238]. The leaves are dried and used as an insect repellent[169, 172], especially in order to repel moths from clothing[13, 100, 238]. They can be put in pillows, mattresses etc[178]. Poorly dried or fermented leaves produce a substance called dicoumarol. This is a potent anti-coagulant which is extremely poisonous in excess, it prevents the blood from coagulating and so it is possible to bleed to death from very small wounds. Dicoumarol is used in rat poisons[238]. The plant can be used as a green manure, enriching the soil with nitrogen as well a providing organic matter[238].
Cultivation details
Prefers a well-drained to dry neutral to alkaline soil in a sunny position[238]. Prefers a clay or a saline soil[13]. Dislikes shade. Established plants are drought tolerant[238]. The flowers are rich in pollen making this a good bee plant[4, 7, 8, 13]. If they are cut back before flowering, the plants will grow on for at least another year before dying[115]. The dried plant has a sweet aromatic fragrance like newly mown hay[245]. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[200].

Propagation
Seed – sow spring to mid-summer in situ[87]. Pre-soaking the seed for 12 hours in warm water will speed up the germination process, particularly in dry weather[K]. Germination will usually take place within 2 weeks.

**** health-from-nature.net/Yellow_Sweetclover.html
Common name: Yellow Sweetclower
Latin name: Melilotus officinalis
Other names: Common Melilot, Yellow Melilot, Ribbed Melilot
Family: Fabaceae
Habitat: The plant is native to Europe and Asia. It can be found in open fields, along roadsides and pastures.
Description: Yellow Sweetclover is a herbaceous annual or biennial plant. It can grow up to 2 meters in height. It has erect, channeled and furrowed stems, usually pubescent near the tip. Leaves are alternate and compound, with oblong and serrated leaflets. Flowers are small and yellow, grouped in terminal and axillary racemes.
Parts used: Whole plant
Useful components: Coumarine
Medicinal use: Yellow Sweetclover is considered to be an antibacterial, anticoagulant, astringent, laxative, carminative and emollient. The plant is very helpful in removing gas from the digestive system and in inducing urination. It can improve blood circulation, and be of great help in treatments of varicose veins and hemorrhoids. It can also be helpful in treatments of wounds, cuts and bruises. Used in form of a tea, Yellow Sweetclower is beneficial in cases of nervous tensions, painful menstruation, insomnia and palpitations.
Safety: Some herbs could react with certain medication. Therefore, it is advisable to consult your doctor before consumption of any herb.

**** www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/kings/melilotus.html

Anthoxanthum odoratum Carphephorus odoratissimus Dipteryx odorata Dipteryx oppositifolia Galium odoratum Hierochloe odorata Jumellea fragrans Melilotus albus Melilotus officinalis
The leaves and flowering tops of Melilotus officinalis, Willdenow (Melilotus vulgaris, Eaton and Wright; Trifolium officinale, Linné).
Nat. Ord.—Leguminosae.
COMMON NAMES: Sweet clover, Yellow melilot, Yellow melilot clover.
ILLUSTRATION: Johnson, Med. Bot. of N. A., Fig. 120.

Botanical Source, History and Description.—Yellow melilot has an erect, sulcate stem, about 3 (2 to 4) feet high, with spreading branches. The leaves are pinnately trifoliate; the leaflets obovate-oblong, obtuse and Smooth, with remote, mucronate teeth. The flowers are yellow, in one-sided, spicate, axillary, loose, paniculate racemes; the calyx half as long as the corolla; the legume ovoid and 2-seeded. The petals in this species are of about equal length. It is an indigenous annual, growing in alluvial meadows, and flowering in June. The whole plant is scented, having nearly the odor of the sweet-scented vernal grass, Anthoxanthum odoratum. The taste of the plant, when dried, is somewhat pungent, aromatic, and bitterish. A closely related species, the Melilotus officinalis of Desrousseaux (M. diffusa, Koch; M. arvensis, Walroth) of Europe, is collected also with the foregoing species. It has light-yellow flowers having short carinas, while the fruit is a transversely-rugose, obovate, usually 1-seeded legume. An American species, having white flowers, probably has virtues similar to yellow melilot. It is the Melilotus alba, Lamarck (Melilotus officinalis, Pursh; Melilotus officinalis, var. alba, Nuttall; Melilotus leucantha, Koch). In this species the standard is longer than the other petals. It is known as White melilot, White melilot clover, or Sweet-scented clover, and is a biennial, with an erect, robust, very branching, sulcate stem, 4 to 6 feet high. The leaflets are variable, oval, ovate, ovate-oblong, truncate, and mucronate at the apex, remotely serrate, and 1 or 2 inches long; stipules setaceous. The flowers are white, numerous, the racemes more loose and longer than in the first species. The petals are unequal, the banner longer than wings or keel, and the calyx shorter than the corolla by more than one-half. This plant grows in similar situations with M. officinalis, flowering in July and August, and having a sweet fragrance, which is improved upon being dried—(W.).

Chemical Composition.—The characteristic constituent of melilotus is the aromatic, crystallizable coumarin (C9H6O2), which is the anhydrid of ortho-coumaric acid (C6H4OH.CHCHCOOH). The latter, and hydrocoumaric (melilotic) acid (C6H4OH.CH2CH2COOH) likewise occur in the plant. Cumarin forms with melilotic acid a crystallizable compound (Zwenger and Bodenbender). Melilotol of Phipson (1875), is a volatile oil, probably the anhydrid (lactone) of melilotic acid. As much as 0.2 per cent has been obtained by distilling the fresh herb with water. Chenopodin, a crystallizable principle occurring quite frequently in various plants, was observed by Reinsch (1867) as a deposit from an alcoholic extract of Melilotus alba; it is probably identical with leucin (amido-caproic acid, C5H10NH2COOH) (Flückiger, Pharmacognosie, 1891).

Coumarin is also the odoriferous principle of many other plants, occurring, e. g., in Tonka beans where it was first discovered; in Liatris, Asperula odorata, etc. (see list of coumarin-bearing plants in Husemann and Hilger, Pflanzenstoffe, p. 1037). It was found in melilotus only in small quantity (about 0.04 per cent, in combination with melilotic acid). Coumarin is now obtained synthetically by the action of acetic anhydrid and sodium acetate upon the sodium compound of salicylic aldehyde (C6H4OHCHO). It forms hard, colorless prisms, melting at 67° C. (152.6° F.), and boiling at 291° C. (608° F.). It sublimes, however, at ordinary temperature, in the form of white needles; sometimes it is found in crystals on the herb. Coumarin is soluble in ether, volatile and fatty oils, in acetic and tartaric acids, also soluble in boiling alcohol, and requires 400 parts of cold, and 45 parts of hot water for solution. Hot alkalies convert it into ortho-coumaric acid.

Ɣ Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.—Melilotus (species), placed between woolen clothing, is used in Europe to guard against the ravages of the moth. The medicinal properties of melilotus are undoubtedly chiefly due to coumarin. Ɣ Many observers have found it peculiarly effective in certain painful disorders, particularly neuralgias of long standing and associated with debility. It is adapted to idiopathic neuralgic headaches, and to neuralgic affections not depending upon reflex causes, although it has given good results in headaches arising from painful disorders of the stomach. Recurring neuralgia, especially from cold or fatigue, have been promptly relieved by small doses of the drug. It relieves ovarian neuralgia sometimes as if by magic, and in dysmenorrhoea its beneficial effect is observed when lameness and soreness are prominent symptoms, and particularly when the trouble seems to follow the great sciatic nerve. Rheumatic cases, showing marked lameness, are also said to be cases for its exhibition. It is likewise of value in painful dysuria, colic, painful diarrhoea, and menstrual colic. Gastralgia, neuralgia of the stomach, and other abdominal viscera, have been promptly relieved by it, and a prominent symptom in these disorders, that has been met by the drug, is the coldness of the extremities. We should remember melilotus in painful states, with coldness, and marked soreness or tenderness to the touch. Dose of specific melilotus, 1 to 10 drops; of a strong tincture, 1 to 20 drops. The leaves and flowers of these two plants (M. officinalis and M. alba) are boiled in lard, and formed into an ointment, which is found of utility as an application to all kinds of ulcers. The Vanilla, or Seneca grass, used for a stimulant purpose, is the Hierochloë borealis.

Specific Indications and Uses.—Idiopathic headaches; long-standing neuralgias; coldness, tenderness, lameness or marked soreness of parts; painful menstruation with lameness or sensation of cold; menstrual colic; ovarian neuralgia; colic with diarrhoea and much flatus.

Related Drugs.—TONKA BEANS. These are derived from the Dipteryx odorata, Willdenow (Coumarouna odorata, Aublet, a large, papilionaceous tree inhabiting Guiana. The fruit consists of an oblong-ovate, 1-seeded legume. The seed, or part employed, is somewhat 2-edged, appearing compressed, blackish-brown in color, and has a brittle, shining, or fatty-like skin, is deeply rugose, and has an oily, pale-brown kernel. The seeds possess an aromatic, bitterish taste, and a balsamic, agreeable, vanilla-like odor. The chief constituent, and the one upon which its odor depends, is coumarin (see Melilotus), which is often found between the two halves of the seeds, and upon the surface, as an efflorescence. Coumarin was first observed in Tonka beans, in 1820, by Vogel, who held it to be benzoic acid. Guibourt soon afterward declared it to be a different substance, and gave it its present name. Tonka beans are about 2 inches long. A variety known as English Tonka beans, are smoother, smaller, and do not contain as much coumarin as the preceding, 108 grains having been yielded by 1 pound of true Tonka beans. The English Tonka bean is the seed of Dipteryx oppositifolia, Willdenow. Tonka depends undoubtedly upon coumarin for its virtues. Pronounced narcotic effects have been observed from coumarin, which is also a cardiac stimulant, and finally paralyzes the heart. Dr. Laurence Johnson attributes the evil effects of cigarette smoking to this principle, for among the substances used in preparing cigarettes are plants containing coumarin, notably Liatris odoratissima. A fluid extract of Tonka bean has been used in pertussis.

FAHAM LEAVES.—The leaves of Angraecum fragrans, belonging to the Orchidaceae. They have a strong and delicious aroma, and a sharp, aromatic taste. Introduced at one time in France as a substitute for ordinary tea. Fifteen grains are infused in a cup of cold water, brought to a boil for 10 minutes, poured into a closed container, and sweetened when partaken of. It comes from Mauritius and the Isle of Reunion, and contains coumarin.

Yellow Sweetclower, Common Melilot, Melilotus officinalis….Cỏ Ba Lá ngọt ….#6
relationship advice

Image by Vietnam Plants & The USA. plants
Taken on March 28, 2012 in Waco city, Texas state, Southern of The United States of America.

Vietnamese named : Cỏ Ba Lá ngọt .
Common names : Yellow Sweetclower, Common Melilot, Yellow Melilot, Ribbed Melilot.
Scientist name : Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. Sweetclover.
Synonyms :
Familly : Fabaceae – Pea family
Kingdom : Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom : Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision : Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division : Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class : Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass : Rosidae
Order :" Fabales
Genus : Melilotus Mill. – sweetclover
Species : Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. – sweetclover

**** www.bachkhoatrithuc.vn/encyclopedia/4668-02-6339309819081… :

_______________________________________________________

**** plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=meof
**** en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melilotus_officinalis

**** www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Melilotus+officinalis : Click on link to read enough information, please.
SynonymsM. arvensis.
Known Hazards The dried leaves can be toxic. though the fresh leaves are quite safe to use. This is possibly due to the presence of coumarin, the substance that gives some dried plants the smell of new mown hay, if taken internally it can prevent the blood clotting.
HabitatsGrassy fields and roadsides, avoiding acid soils[17].
RangeEurope to E. Asia. Naturalized in Britain.

Physical Characteristics
Melilotus officinalis is a ANNUAL/BIENNIAL growing to 1.2 m (4ft) by 0.7 m (2ft 4in).
It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.It can fix Nitrogen.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Habitats
Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root; Seedpod.
Edible Uses: Condiment.

Root[46, 105, 172]. Consumed as a food by the Kalmuks[183]. Young shoots – cooked. Used like asparagus[183]. Young leaves are eaten in salads[13]. The leaves and seedpods are cooked as a vegetable[8, 55, 172]. They are used as a flavouring[46]. Only fresh leaves should be used, see the notes above on toxicity[62]. The crushed dried leaves can be used as a vanilla flavouring in puddings, pastries etc[177, 183, 238]. Caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity. Flowers – raw or cooked[172]. The flowers and seeds are used as a flavouring[2]. The flowers also give an aromatic quality to some tisanes[7].

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antispasmodic; Aromatic; Carminative; Diuretic; Emollient; Expectorant; Ophthalmic; Vulnerary.

Melilot, used either externally or internally, can help treat varicose veins and haemorrhoids though it requires a long-term treatment for the effect to be realised[254]. Use of the plant also helps to reduce the risk of phlebitis and thrombosis[254]. Melilot contains coumarins and, as the plant dries or spoils, these become converted to dicoumarol, a powerful anticoagulant[254]. Thus the plant should be used with some caution, it should not be prescribed to patients with a history of poor blood clotting or who are taking warfarin medication[238]. See also the notes above on toxicity[21]. The flowering plant is antispasmodic, aromatic, carminative, diuretic, emollient, mildly expectorant, mildly sedative and vulnerary[4, 7, 9, 13, 21, 238, 240]. An infusion is used in the treatment of sleeplessness, nervous tension, neuralgia, palpitations, varicose veins, painful congestive menstruation, in the prevention of thrombosis, flatulence and intestinal disorders[7, 238]. Externally, it is used to treat eye inflammations, rheumatic pains, swollen joints, severe bruising, boils and erysipelas, whilst a decoction is added to the bath-water[9, 238]. The flowering plant is harvested in the summer and can be dried for later use[7]. A distilled water obtained from the flowering tops is an effective treatment for conjunctivitis[7].
Other Uses
Green manure; Repellent.

The leaves contain coumarin and they release the pleasant smell of newly mown hay when they are drying[238]. The leaves are dried and used as an insect repellent[169, 172], especially in order to repel moths from clothing[13, 100, 238]. They can be put in pillows, mattresses etc[178]. Poorly dried or fermented leaves produce a substance called dicoumarol. This is a potent anti-coagulant which is extremely poisonous in excess, it prevents the blood from coagulating and so it is possible to bleed to death from very small wounds. Dicoumarol is used in rat poisons[238]. The plant can be used as a green manure, enriching the soil with nitrogen as well a providing organic matter[238].
Cultivation details
Prefers a well-drained to dry neutral to alkaline soil in a sunny position[238]. Prefers a clay or a saline soil[13]. Dislikes shade. Established plants are drought tolerant[238]. The flowers are rich in pollen making this a good bee plant[4, 7, 8, 13]. If they are cut back before flowering, the plants will grow on for at least another year before dying[115]. The dried plant has a sweet aromatic fragrance like newly mown hay[245]. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[200].

Propagation
Seed – sow spring to mid-summer in situ[87]. Pre-soaking the seed for 12 hours in warm water will speed up the germination process, particularly in dry weather[K]. Germination will usually take place within 2 weeks.

**** health-from-nature.net/Yellow_Sweetclover.html
Common name: Yellow Sweetclower
Latin name: Melilotus officinalis
Other names: Common Melilot, Yellow Melilot, Ribbed Melilot
Family: Fabaceae
Habitat: The plant is native to Europe and Asia. It can be found in open fields, along roadsides and pastures.
Description: Yellow Sweetclover is a herbaceous annual or biennial plant. It can grow up to 2 meters in height. It has erect, channeled and furrowed stems, usually pubescent near the tip. Leaves are alternate and compound, with oblong and serrated leaflets. Flowers are small and yellow, grouped in terminal and axillary racemes.
Parts used: Whole plant
Useful components: Coumarine
Medicinal use: Yellow Sweetclover is considered to be an antibacterial, anticoagulant, astringent, laxative, carminative and emollient. The plant is very helpful in removing gas from the digestive system and in inducing urination. It can improve blood circulation, and be of great help in treatments of varicose veins and hemorrhoids. It can also be helpful in treatments of wounds, cuts and bruises. Used in form of a tea, Yellow Sweetclower is beneficial in cases of nervous tensions, painful menstruation, insomnia and palpitations.
Safety: Some herbs could react with certain medication. Therefore, it is advisable to consult your doctor before consumption of any herb.

**** www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/kings/melilotus.html

Anthoxanthum odoratum Carphephorus odoratissimus Dipteryx odorata Dipteryx oppositifolia Galium odoratum Hierochloe odorata Jumellea fragrans Melilotus albus Melilotus officinalis
The leaves and flowering tops of Melilotus officinalis, Willdenow (Melilotus vulgaris, Eaton and Wright; Trifolium officinale, Linné).
Nat. Ord.—Leguminosae.
COMMON NAMES: Sweet clover, Yellow melilot, Yellow melilot clover.
ILLUSTRATION: Johnson, Med. Bot. of N. A., Fig. 120.

Botanical Source, History and Description.—Yellow melilot has an erect, sulcate stem, about 3 (2 to 4) feet high, with spreading branches. The leaves are pinnately trifoliate; the leaflets obovate-oblong, obtuse and Smooth, with remote, mucronate teeth. The flowers are yellow, in one-sided, spicate, axillary, loose, paniculate racemes; the calyx half as long as the corolla; the legume ovoid and 2-seeded. The petals in this species are of about equal length. It is an indigenous annual, growing in alluvial meadows, and flowering in June. The whole plant is scented, having nearly the odor of the sweet-scented vernal grass, Anthoxanthum odoratum. The taste of the plant, when dried, is somewhat pungent, aromatic, and bitterish. A closely related species, the Melilotus officinalis of Desrousseaux (M. diffusa, Koch; M. arvensis, Walroth) of Europe, is collected also with the foregoing species. It has light-yellow flowers having short carinas, while the fruit is a transversely-rugose, obovate, usually 1-seeded legume. An American species, having white flowers, probably has virtues similar to yellow melilot. It is the Melilotus alba, Lamarck (Melilotus officinalis, Pursh; Melilotus officinalis, var. alba, Nuttall; Melilotus leucantha, Koch). In this species the standard is longer than the other petals. It is known as White melilot, White melilot clover, or Sweet-scented clover, and is a biennial, with an erect, robust, very branching, sulcate stem, 4 to 6 feet high. The leaflets are variable, oval, ovate, ovate-oblong, truncate, and mucronate at the apex, remotely serrate, and 1 or 2 inches long; stipules setaceous. The flowers are white, numerous, the racemes more loose and longer than in the first species. The petals are unequal, the banner longer than wings or keel, and the calyx shorter than the corolla by more than one-half. This plant grows in similar situations with M. officinalis, flowering in July and August, and having a sweet fragrance, which is improved upon being dried—(W.).

Chemical Composition.—The characteristic constituent of melilotus is the aromatic, crystallizable coumarin (C9H6O2), which is the anhydrid of ortho-coumaric acid (C6H4OH.CHCHCOOH). The latter, and hydrocoumaric (melilotic) acid (C6H4OH.CH2CH2COOH) likewise occur in the plant. Cumarin forms with melilotic acid a crystallizable compound (Zwenger and Bodenbender). Melilotol of Phipson (1875), is a volatile oil, probably the anhydrid (lactone) of melilotic acid. As much as 0.2 per cent has been obtained by distilling the fresh herb with water. Chenopodin, a crystallizable principle occurring quite frequently in various plants, was observed by Reinsch (1867) as a deposit from an alcoholic extract of Melilotus alba; it is probably identical with leucin (amido-caproic acid, C5H10NH2COOH) (Flückiger, Pharmacognosie, 1891).

Coumarin is also the odoriferous principle of many other plants, occurring, e. g., in Tonka beans where it was first discovered; in Liatris, Asperula odorata, etc. (see list of coumarin-bearing plants in Husemann and Hilger, Pflanzenstoffe, p. 1037). It was found in melilotus only in small quantity (about 0.04 per cent, in combination with melilotic acid). Coumarin is now obtained synthetically by the action of acetic anhydrid and sodium acetate upon the sodium compound of salicylic aldehyde (C6H4OHCHO). It forms hard, colorless prisms, melting at 67° C. (152.6° F.), and boiling at 291° C. (608° F.). It sublimes, however, at ordinary temperature, in the form of white needles; sometimes it is found in crystals on the herb. Coumarin is soluble in ether, volatile and fatty oils, in acetic and tartaric acids, also soluble in boiling alcohol, and requires 400 parts of cold, and 45 parts of hot water for solution. Hot alkalies convert it into ortho-coumaric acid.

Ɣ Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.—Melilotus (species), placed between woolen clothing, is used in Europe to guard against the ravages of the moth. The medicinal properties of melilotus are undoubtedly chiefly due to coumarin. Ɣ Many observers have found it peculiarly effective in certain painful disorders, particularly neuralgias of long standing and associated with debility. It is adapted to idiopathic neuralgic headaches, and to neuralgic affections not depending upon reflex causes, although it has given good results in headaches arising from painful disorders of the stomach. Recurring neuralgia, especially from cold or fatigue, have been promptly relieved by small doses of the drug. It relieves ovarian neuralgia sometimes as if by magic, and in dysmenorrhoea its beneficial effect is observed when lameness and soreness are prominent symptoms, and particularly when the trouble seems to follow the great sciatic nerve. Rheumatic cases, showing marked lameness, are also said to be cases for its exhibition. It is likewise of value in painful dysuria, colic, painful diarrhoea, and menstrual colic. Gastralgia, neuralgia of the stomach, and other abdominal viscera, have been promptly relieved by it, and a prominent symptom in these disorders, that has been met by the drug, is the coldness of the extremities. We should remember melilotus in painful states, with coldness, and marked soreness or tenderness to the touch. Dose of specific melilotus, 1 to 10 drops; of a strong tincture, 1 to 20 drops. The leaves and flowers of these two plants (M. officinalis and M. alba) are boiled in lard, and formed into an ointment, which is found of utility as an application to all kinds of ulcers. The Vanilla, or Seneca grass, used for a stimulant purpose, is the Hierochloë borealis.

Specific Indications and Uses.—Idiopathic headaches; long-standing neuralgias; coldness, tenderness, lameness or marked soreness of parts; painful menstruation with lameness or sensation of cold; menstrual colic; ovarian neuralgia; colic with diarrhoea and much flatus.

Related Drugs.—TONKA BEANS. These are derived from the Dipteryx odorata, Willdenow (Coumarouna odorata, Aublet, a large, papilionaceous tree inhabiting Guiana. The fruit consists of an oblong-ovate, 1-seeded legume. The seed, or part employed, is somewhat 2-edged, appearing compressed, blackish-brown in color, and has a brittle, shining, or fatty-like skin, is deeply rugose, and has an oily, pale-brown kernel. The seeds possess an aromatic, bitterish taste, and a balsamic, agreeable, vanilla-like odor. The chief constituent, and the one upon which its odor depends, is coumarin (see Melilotus), which is often found between the two halves of the seeds, and upon the surface, as an efflorescence. Coumarin was first observed in Tonka beans, in 1820, by Vogel, who held it to be benzoic acid. Guibourt soon afterward declared it to be a different substance, and gave it its present name. Tonka beans are about 2 inches long. A variety known as English Tonka beans, are smoother, smaller, and do not contain as much coumarin as the preceding, 108 grains having been yielded by 1 pound of true Tonka beans. The English Tonka bean is the seed of Dipteryx oppositifolia, Willdenow. Tonka depends undoubtedly upon coumarin for its virtues. Pronounced narcotic effects have been observed from coumarin, which is also a cardiac stimulant, and finally paralyzes the heart. Dr. Laurence Johnson attributes the evil effects of cigarette smoking to this principle, for among the substances used in preparing cigarettes are plants containing coumarin, notably Liatris odoratissima. A fluid extract of Tonka bean has been used in pertussis.

FAHAM LEAVES.—The leaves of Angraecum fragrans, belonging to the Orchidaceae. They have a strong and delicious aroma, and a sharp, aromatic taste. Introduced at one time in France as a substitute for ordinary tea. Fifteen grains are infused in a cup of cold water, brought to a boil for 10 minutes, poured into a closed container, and sweetened when partaken of. It comes from Mauritius and the Isle of Reunion, and contains coumarin.

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Cool Relationship Advice images

A few nice relationship advice images I found:

Area 27 – North Coast
relationship advice

Image by TranBC
O’Brien Road & Bridge Maintenance Ltd was a finalist for the Highway Maintenance Award for Service Area 27 – North Coast.

O’Brien has consistently provided excellent community services, such as giving winter maintenance advice to the Village of Queen Charlotte.

They have also maintained exceptional relationships with the Haida and the other key stakeholders by assisting with fish passage improvements and brushing over and above ministry specifications.

O’Brien continues to find innovative ways of performing maintenance, such as constructing a well to ensure there is a water supply for maintenance activities and revising the design for rip rap for shoreline erosion protection.

Of particular note was an incident this fall when a windstorm dropped hundreds of trees on Highway 16 in Tlell and north of Port Clements. O’Brien’s rallied crews, posted advisories and had two lanes of traffic flowing in an exceptionally short period of time, given the severity of the storm.

www.tranbc.ca

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Cool Mystery Method images

Some cool mystery method images:

Cassius Dio …The Jewish Impact on Civilization (August 17, 2012 / 29 Av 5772) …item 2.. Moody Blues – Question – Royal Albert Hall …
mystery method

Image by marsmet542
A STRANGE PEOPLE — "The Jews are distinguished from the rest of mankind in practically every detail of life," wrote Roman philosopher Deo Cassius, expressing his disapproval. "In particular … they do not honor any of the usual gods, but show extreme reverence to only one God."
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……..*****All images are copyrighted by their respective authors ……..
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Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus[1][2] (Ancient Greek: Δίων ὁ Κάσσιος, c. AD 150 – 235,[3] known in English as Cassius Dio, Dio Cassius, or Dio (Dione. lib) was a Roman consul and a noted historian writing in Greek.

Dio published a history of Rome in 80 volumes, beginning with the legendary arrival of Aeneas in Italy through the subsequent founding of Rome (753 BC), the formation of the Republic (509 BC), and the creation of the Empire (31 BC), up to AD 229; a period of about 1,400 years.

Of the 80 books, written over 22 years, many survive into the modern age intact or as fragments, providing modern scholars with a detailed perspective on Roman history.
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…..item 1)…. aish.com … www.aish.com/ci/s … HOME CURRENT ISSUES SOCIETY …

WORLD PERFECT: The Jewish Impact on Civilization
Where did the values and principles of the modern world come from?
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by Rabbi Ken Spiro
August 17, 2012 / 29 Av 5772

www.aish.com/ci/s/48899267.html

An excerpt from Rabbi Ken Spiro’s recently published book, "World Perfect."

While developing an idea for a lecture program, I conducted a series of surveys over a period of two years, asking people to list the fundamental values and principles which they felt we needed to uphold in order to make our world as perfect as is humanly possible. In total, some 1,500 individuals were questioned. Overwhelmingly, my respondents – predominantly Westerners, from the United States, Canada, South America, England, France, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, Italy, etc – came up with remarkably similar answers, which could be grouped into these six categories:

1.. Respect for Human Life. In a perfect world, all people would be guaranteed certain basic human rights, paramount among which must be the right to life. They should be able to live that life without constant fear of its loss and with certain basic dignity.

2.. Peace and Harmony. On all levels – whether communal or global – people and nations should co-exist in peace and harmony with respect for each other.

3..Justice and Equality. All people, regardless of race, sex, or social status should be treated equally and fairly in the eyes of the law.

4.. Education. Everyone should receive a basic education that would guarantee functional literacy within society.

5..Family. A strong, stable family structure needs to exist to serve as the moral foundation for society and as the most important institution for socializing/educating children.

6..Social Responsibility. On an individual, community, national and global level, people must take responsibility for the world. This should include an organized social network to address basic concerns such as disease, poverty, famine, crime, drug-related problems, as well as environmental and animal protection issues.

The respondents to my survey came from all walks of life, yet regardless of their backgrounds, they were in agreement. Indeed, they, and I venture to say most human beings the world over, deeply believe that a perfect world must include these universal values.

The question is: Why?

Are these six basic ideas intrinsic to human nature? Have people always felt this way? And if not, where did we get these values? What is the source of this utopian world vision?

My search for answers to these questions has produced this book. Where did the values and principles of the modern world come from? The answer I found will surprise, perhaps even shock, the reader.

As the respondents to my survey were predominantly residents of democratic countries, they naturally assumed that the values they hold dear have originated – as did democracy – with the Greeks and, to a lesser extent, with disseminators of Hellenistic, i.e. Greek ideas, the Romans.

Indeed, this issue is subject to much debate in academic circles these days. Traditionalists continue to insist that the values of ancient Greece and Rome underlie all our learning, philosophy, art, and ethics, while their opponents accuse them that their idealization of Greco-Roman standards of virtue, wisdom, and beauty is sentimental if not downright unreal.

Reporting on this bitter controversy, the New York Times (March 7, 1998) asked in a headline:

"THE ANCIENTS WERE: A) BELLICOSE ELITISTS OR B) THE SOURCE OF WESTERN VALUES?"
It would be pointless to negate that Greece and Rome, besides being the most advanced civilizations of antiquity, have also been the most influential of civilizations on Western Europe and by extension, the Americas. Without a doubt, much of our ideas about art, beauty, philosophy, government, and modern empirical science do come from classical Greek thought. Western law, government, administration, and engineering were also powerfully shaped by Rome. Indeed, we do overwhelmingly get the lion’s share of our culture from these civilizations.

But can the same be said about our values, ethics, and principles?

Let me hasten to say that this is not a trick question; I am not hinting here at some far-fetched notion that we really got our values from the Far East. Although, with the recent interest in Eastern philosophies a few voices have been raised advocating this view, the undisputed historical fact is that only within the last few hundred years did the West have any significant interaction with the East.

So the question remains: How did we come to order our moral values in this particular way?

To answer this question we shall begin our examination by taking a look just how those civilizations – which, without a doubt, shaped our political and social systems – related to the values we hold dear today.
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—– A SOCIETY WITHOUT MERCY

As we begin to trace the history of the values of our world, we shall, first of all, take a look at how the ancients – who bequeathed to us so many of our ideas – regarded the values we cherish today. Did they consider them essential to the making of an ideal world? Or was their worldview considerably different than ours?
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Of all the principles we might list, the basic right to life seems certainly the most fundamental. We all want to live without fear of being arbitrarily deprived of life. We all want to live with a certain minimal amount of human dignity. We all want certain protection in the law against oppression by tyrants who might consider certain segments of society expendable simply because they are too weak or too poor to protect themselves.

As obvious and important as this concept seems to us today, it was not so obvious or important in the world of antiquity.

To begin with, Greeks and Romans – as well as virtually every ancient culture we know of – practiced infanticide.

By infanticide, I mean the killing of newborn children as a way of population control, sex selection (generally, boys were desirable, girls undesirable), and as a way of ridding society of potentially burdensome or deformed members.

A baby that appeared weak or sickly at birth, or had even a minor birth defect such a cleft pallet, hair lip, or cleft foot, or was in some other way imperfect was killed. This was not done by some Nazi-like baby removal squad. This was done by an immediate member of the family, usually the mother or father, and usually within three days after birth.

The method of "disposal" varied, but generally we know that, in antiquity, babies were taken out to the forest and left to die of exposure, dropped down wells to drown, or thrown into sewers or onto manure piles.

The horror of a parent being capable of killing his or her child is shocking enough. But that this parent should have so little regard for the child, as to unmercifully dump it where it might die slowly and painfully, or be picked up by someone to be reared into slavery or prostitution (as sometimes happened), suggests a level of cruelty beyond our modern imagination. Lloyd DeMause in his essay "The Evolution of Childhood" (pp. 25-26) reports:

"Infanticide during antiquity has usually been played down despite literally hundreds of clear references by ancient writers that it was an accepted, everyday occurrence. Children were thrown into rivers, flung into dung-heaps and cess trenches, ‘potted’ in jars to starve to death, and exposed in every hill and roadside, ‘a prey for birds, food for wild beasts to rend.’ (Euripides, Ion, 504)"

Gruesome evidence of this practice has been found in various archeological excavations. Most notably, in the Athenian Agora, a well was uncovered containing the remains of 175 babies thrown there to drown.

Lest we assume that was the practice of the poor and ignorant, one of the most influential thinkers in Western intellectual history – none other than Aristotle – argued in his Politics that killing children was essential to the functioning of society. He wrote:

"There must be a law that no imperfect or maimed child shall be brought up. And to avoid an excess in population, some children must be exposed. For a limit must be fixed to the population of the state." (Politics VII.16)

Note the tone of his statement. Aristotle isn’t saying "I like killing babies," but he is making a cold, rational calculation: over-population is dangerous, and this is the most expedient way to keep it in check.

Four hundred years after Aristotle, the practice of killing babies was a firmly entrenched practice in the Roman Empire. This is an excerpt from a famous and much-quoted letter from a Roman citizen named Hilarion to his pregnant wife, Alis, dated June 17th, circa 1 CE:

"Know that I am still in Alexandria. And do not worry if they all come back and I remain in Alexandria. I ask and beg of you to take good care of our baby son, and as soon as I receive payment I will send it up to you. If you deliver a child [before I get home], if it is a boy, keep it, if a girl discard it…"

Hilarion, as we see, is very much concerned about his baby son, his heir. Indeed a typical Roman family might be made up of two or three sons – to insure succession should one son die – but seldom more than one daughter, who was considered a burdensome responsibility and was all too expendable.

Of course, it could be argued that on other fronts the Greeks and the Romans were capable of refined thinking and an elevated approach to behavior. Seneca, the famed Roman philosopher and writer, developed a lengthy treatise on the control and consequences of anger. In it, he draws the distinction between anger and wisdom, using the following example: "Children also, if weak and deformed, we drown, not through anger, but through the wisdom of preferring the sound to the useless." (Concerning Anger, I.XV)
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—– EXPLOITATION OF THE INNOCENTS

The whole attitude toward the weak and helpless was totally skewed in ancient societies. Apart from thinking nothing of killing infants when they saw fit, the Romans engaged in the practice of mutilating unwanted children to make them at least "useful" for begging. (Incidentally, this horrifying practice is still seen today in India.)

Our morally-minded friend Seneca, who was so concerned with the issue of useful vs. useless, also came up with a tortured justification for this abomination:

"Look on the blind wandering about the streets leaning on their sticks, and those with crushed feet, and still again look on those with broken limbs. This one is without arms, that one has had his shoulder pulled down out of shape in order that his grotesqueries may excite laughter … Let us go to the origin of those ills – a laboratory for the manufacture of human wrecks – a cavern filled with the limbs torn from living children … What wrong has been done to the Republic? On the contrary, have not these children been done a service inasmuch as their parents had cast them out?"

Today, we would view the killing of newborn babies because they were unwanted or mutilating of tiny infants for profit as probably the most heinous acts a person could commit. What is the weakest, most defenseless, most innocent member of society? A little child. Therefore, we believe that a child, a baby, deserves the protection of society even more than an adult. But in Greek and Roman thinking, rather than being accorded the most protection, children were given the least; this happened simply because, as totally powerless, they were the easiest people to trample on or get rid of.

Points out Harvard Professor and former President of the American Historical Association, William L. Langer (in his foreword to The History of Childhood):

"Children, being physically unable to resist aggression, were the victims of forces over which they had no control, and they were abused in many imaginable and some almost unimaginable ways…"

So we see how very different the attitude of antiquity was to ours. The most basic right – to life (never mind, to life with dignity) – was by no means guaranteed.
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—– HORROR SHOW

Surely, there can’t be a better example of a total disregard for the value of human life than killing people for entertainment. And here the Romans take first prize. No civilization before or since was so bloodthirsty in this regard. Throughout the empire, more than 200 stadiums were specifically erected for the exhibition of this particular "sport," which required that people and animals be housed and displayed in such a way that they couldn’t escape before being murdered in front of a cheering and jeering audience.

The practice was extremely popular, and Emperor Augustus in his Acts brags that during his reign (29 BC to 14 CE) he staged games where 10,000 men fought and 3,500 wild beasts were slain. While savage fights to the death between gladiators – who were usually slaves trained for the purpose – were the highlight, to keep up the novelty of death, Nero and Domitian sent in even women, children, blind people and dwarfs to fight each other. Anything went just so the crowds were happy.

This form of entertainment reached its pinnacle with the inauguration, in the year 80 CE of the Coliseum, the ruins of which are today a big tourist attraction in Rome.

The Romans were justly proud of the engineering feat that the construction of the Coliseum represented.

The giant 600-by-500-foot arena, built by Vespasian and completed by Titus, seated 50,000 people. It had a removable roof and a floor that could be raised or lowered, depending on what the day’s atmosphere demanded. Sometimes the Coliseum was transformed into a desert or into a jungle, and it could also be filled with water and turned into a lake so boats could sail in it.

Why was this incredible place built? To feature death as an elaborate form of amusement for the masses.

On a typical day when the Coliseum was playing to a full house, the place was crowded with men, women and children – yes, the Romans thought nothing wrong with exposing children to this kind of grotesquerie. Admission was free, and a pillow for your seat, meat and wine were provided, also for free.

The opening act to start off the morning was an exhibition of wild animals. The Romans went all over the empire to find wild, exotic beasts to astonish the crowds. Next, the arena was lowered to feature combat between them – Romans cheered as lions tore apart tigers, tigers went up against bears, leopards against wolves. It goes without saying that the Romans had never heard of animal rights.

Then came the bullfights, except that the toreadors, being slaves or convicts, had been given no chance to practice, so the bull usually gored them to death. The crowd roared. This is what they came to see.

You’d think that would be enough carnage for anyone. That was only the warm-up act. Next came feeding people to the animals. Keep in mind that Rome was a very law-and-order-minded society and everything had to be done legally – you couldn’t just throw anyone to the lions, only people convicted of a capitol offense. But if they didn’t have enough victims for a good day’s fun, the Romans would conveniently condemn even minor criminals to death and replenish the supply. (Christianity, being a capital offense in Rome ever since the great fire of 64 CE, for which its adherents were blamed, provided a steady supply of victims.)

During intermissions, giant fountains sprayed perfume in the air to reduce the stench of death. Entertainment did not stop, however. In between the spectacular killings were held run-of-the-mill executions by burning, beheading, and flaying (that is, skinning people alive).

The main event was saved for the afternoon, and this was what the crowd was really waiting for – gladiatorial combat. The gladiators fought to the death, although the lives of particularly brave fighters could be spared by the emperor or the vote of the crowd.

In the year 107 CE, during a four-month celebration of his conquest of Dacia, Trajan – who was perhaps trying to match Augustus’ record – held a major tournament in which 10,000 gladiators and 3,000 animals fought. This meant that whoever sat through that spectacle watched at least 5,000 people die.

Trajan was so fond of this kind of massacre – and he had a large supply of Dacian prisoners of war for the purpose – that he apparently sent 23,000 people to their slaughter between 106 and 118 CE.

It was all horrible and perverse, and if you thought it couldn’t get worse, consider that Commodus (emperor from 180 to 192 CE) organized fights between crippled people and finished them off himself.

Of the Roman philosophers and great thinkers, only Seneca saw anything wrong with death as entertainment … Other Roman greats were not as soft as Seneca. Cicero, for example, thought that gladiatorial contests promoted courage and endurance, although he was of the opinion that they were not all that entertaining. Juvenal, who criticized everything, loved the games. And Pliny found that watching people be massacred toughened the audience and therefore had educational value.

That about sums up the ancient world attitude toward the value of life. The key thing to keep in mind, however, is that the Greeks or Romans did think that law and order were essential to the efficient functioning of society, and laws under both empires were many and strictly enforced. But the idea that along with your status as a human being came the right to life (forget about life with dignity) was not a given by any means.
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—– AGAINST THE GRAIN: THE JEWISH VIEW

"I will insist that the Hebrews have done more to civilize men than any other nation … fate had ordained the Jews to be the most essential instrument for civilizing the nations." (John Adams, 2nd president of the United States)

"Certainly, the world without the Jews would have been a radically different place. Humanity might have eventually stumbled upon all the Jewish insights. But we cannot be sure. All the great conceptual discoveries of the human intellect seem obvious and inescapable once they had been revealed, but it requires a special genius to formulate them for the first time. The Jews had this gift. To them we owe the idea of equality before the law, both divine and human; of the sanctity of life and the dignity of human person; of the individual conscience and so a personal redemption; of collective conscience and so of social responsibility; of peace as an abstract ideal and love as the foundation of justice, and many other items which constitute the basic moral furniture of the human mind. Without Jews it might have been a much emptier place." (Paul Johnson, Christian historian, author of A History of the Jews and A History of Christianity)

Could that be true?

Is it really possible that our moral values do not originate in one of the great civilizations but have been bequeathed to us by a small, otherwise insignificant nation inhabiting a tiny piece of real estate in the Middle East?

I venture to say that the ancient Hebrews (who later came to be known as the Israelites and still later as the Jews) would have disagreed with the statements of Adams and of Johnson above. They would have insisted that they had nothing personally to do with inventing the values which ran against the grain of the world around them, and indeed were totally unknown to other peoples. They would have insisted that these values came from God, and they were merely the people chosen to disseminate them worldwide.

This was the story they told from the time they appeared on the world scene around 1300 BCE, hundreds of years before the ascent of the Greek civilization. Back then, they were still a newly emerging nation that functioned more like a large extended family, all family members tracing their ancestry to a man named Abraham who had lived somewhere around 1,800 BCE. They were a strange people with an even stranger religion:

They believed in only one God – all-powerful, infinite, and invisible – who had created everything known to man, a notion totally foreign to every ancient people that preceded them.

They claimed that all of them – some 600,000 men and untold number of women and children – had miraculously escaped from slavery in Egypt, then the mightiest empire on earth, through the miraculous intervention of their God.

They claimed that after their great escape, they reached a mountain in the wilderness, Mt. Sinai, where they all had an encounter with God; during that encounter, and through the person of their leader Moses, they supposedly received a code of behavior – compiled in a holy book known as the "Torah" – which they scrupulously followed.
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—– A STRANGE PEOPLE

It was a story bound to raise more than a few eyebrows in the ancient world. Of course, the ancient people believed all sorts of wild things about divine relationships with human beings, so the Jews’ story was not in itself all that outlandish. Nor was a society governed by laws so strange, after all, previous law codes, the Code of Hammurabi being the most famous, set forth rules governing property rights and the like. What the ancient world couldn’t fathom was this particular code. Indeed, it was a code that to the ancient mind seemed irrational.

"The Jews are distinguished from the rest of mankind in practically every detail of life," wrote Roman philosopher Deo Cassius, expressing his disapproval. "In particular … they do not honor any of the usual gods, but show extreme reverence to only one God."

Part of that "extreme" reverence translated into following that God’s law, a law which could not be altered as was convenient. It was an absolute, God-given standard, and by that fact alone it stood apart from any law of any other society.

But there was more about the Jews that was strange, besides their God and their law. The Torah – or the Biblos as the Greeks would call it – was like no holy book of any people before or since, in yet another way. It made the Jews look bad. In it, they are shown as shirkers and complainers, often sinning against their own God and His law. And yet they insisted that they needed to carry around with them the history of their failures as well as their successes in order never to lose sight of their mission to elevate humanity.

Click here to receive Aish.com’s free weekly email.

We shall now take a look at how the ancient Jews related to the basic human right to life and see how close they came to our standard…

[A note to the reader: This is the just the beginning of one of the most fascinating dramas in human history. Despite all odds, the tiny Jewish people not only outlasted the great Empires of Greece and Rome – the unique ideology of Judaism ultimately triumphed over the paganism of the West.

Directly and indirectly – through the Bible, Christianity, Islam and modern democracy – the vast majority of humanity has been profoundly impacted by Judaism and the monumental quest of the Jewish people to perfect the world.]
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…..item 2)…. youtube video … Moody Blues – Question – Royal Albert Hall … 6:47 minutes …

www.youtube.com/watch?v=tmOZFAYeurY

Uploaded by neo1az on May 25, 2008

Moody Blues – Question
Moody Blues – Question
Moody Blues – Question
Moody Blues – Question

Why do we never get an answer
When were knocking at the door?
With a thousand million questions
About hate and death and war.

Its where we stop and look around us
There is nothing that we need.
In a world of persecution
That is burning in its greed.

Why do we never get an answer
When were knocking at the door?
Because the truth is hard to swallow
Thats what the wall of love is for.

Its not the way that you say it
When you do those things to me.
Its more the way that you mean it
When you tell me what will be.

And when you stop and think about it
You wont believe its true.
That all the love youve been giving
Has all been meant for you.

Im looking for someone to change my life.
Im looking for a miracle in my life.
And if you could see what its done to me
To lose the the love I knew
Could safely lead me through.

Between the silence of the mountains
And the crashing of the sea
There lies a land I once lived in
And shes waiting there for me.

But in the grey of the morning
My mind becomes confused
Between the dead and the sleeping
And the road that I must choose.

Im looking for someone to change my life.
Im looking for a miracle in my life.
And if you could see what its done to me
To lose the the love I knew
Could safely lead me to
The land that I once knew.
To learn as we grow old
The secrets of our souls.

Its not the way that you say it
When you do those things to me.
Its more the way you really mean it
When you tell me what will be.

Why do we never get an answer
When were knocking at the door?
With a thousand million questions
About hate and death and war.

Its where we stop and look around us
There is nothing that we need.
In a world of persecution
That is burning in its greed.

Why do we never get an answer
When were knocking at the door?

Alchemy, Astral Projection, Astronomy, Atlantis, Avatars, Awakening (Awakened), Ayurveda, Channeling, Chi, Christ Consciousness, Consciousness Exploration, Conspiracies, Cosmic Consciousness, Doppelgangers, Dream Yoga, Dreams, Dreamwork, Electronic Voice Phenomena, Emphathy, Energy Healing, Energy Work, Enlightenment, Esoteric, ESP, Evolution, Extraterrestrials, Feng Shui, Forests, Gaia Hypothesis, Gnosis, God, Goddess, Healing, Herbs, Hidden Knowledge, Hypnosis, Indigos, Inner-Peace, John Ryan Haule, Kabbalah, Kashmir Shaivism, Kundalini, Lemuria, Light Worker, Love, Lucid Dreaming, Meditation, Mediumship, Mental and Spiritual Healing, Metaphysical Phenomena, Metaphysics, Mind Reading, Moksha, Mountains, Music, NDE, Near-Death Experiences, New Age, Nirvana, Numerology, OBEs, Occult, Ouija Boards, Out-of-Body Experiences, Paranormal, Parapsychology, Past-Lives, Personal Transformation, Phenomenology, Philosophy, Pleiades, Positive Thinking, Prana, Psychedelics, Psychology & Counseling, Qabalah, Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Physics, Raves, Reiki, Reincarnation, Remote Viewing, Robert Monroe, Samadhi, Santeria, Seances, Self-Help, Self-Realization, Shakti, Shaktipat, , Shamanism, Soul Travel, Spiritism, Spiritualism, Spirituality, Surat Shabd Yoga, Tantra, Tarot, Telepathy, The Law of Attraction, The Monroe Institute, The Secret, Tibet, Twin Flames, Unexplained Mysteries, Universalism, Vedanta, Visionary Art, Yoga

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Pizza
mystery method

Image by kern.justin
Please check out full details and many unique recipes at Garrett’s Table!

From Garrett’s Table:
"I know what you’re thinking: “that’s not pizza!” Well it most certainly is. All the flavors of pizza including tomatoes, basil, oregano, cheese, and crust are present in this powerfully flavored and crystal clear red liquid. It’s a real eye opener at parties and an interesting treat to serve with cocktails (pizza martini anyone?). These plastic transfer pipettes allow the diner to squirt a few milliliters of the liquid into their mouths. It’s a delightfully bizarre experience which makes this liquid pizza especially fun. I’ll tell you that the ingredients include tomato juice, basil, oregano, cheese rinds, and garlic croutons but I’m leaving the method of preparation and clarification a mystery. See if you can figure it out!"

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Cool The Pick Up Artist images

Some cool the pick up artist images:

“Bing Necklace 1″ of Recycled Aluminum Cans (beginnings) ~ 1 of 2 photos
the pick up artist

Image by Urban Woodswalker
My work space yesterday. I pick up aluminum cans off the streets, and out of trash bins, bring home and wash throughly. Then I create something of value with them.

See next photo for the results….

Rotten (Copenhagen bilan?)
the pick up artist

Image by Pierre Marcel
February apple
Pierre Marcel. February 2000, France.
Acrylic on canvas 19 x 25 inches
Collection Ted Pierot, Palm Beach, USA.

I arrived in France in February 2000.
If the light is crisp, it is not the winter I expected. It’s cold, yes, but rainy! It was like a cheap grade school watercolor version of November, without the richness of autumn.
There is an abandoned cider-tree orchard in the middle of my village (Gisancourt). In this cemetery-like ambiance, I walked silently through, and in the coffins of patches of grass that survived the frost of January I picked up mommies of last year’s harvest. The desiccated brown apples were the richest colored gems Normandy offered me at that moment.

Comments:

Posted by Chance Kendall on October 19, 2001
I really like the FEVRIER picture. It is most outstanding. I think the best part is the core of the apple exposing the tree inside. I think that it is a wonderful concept and you should keep up the good work. It also seems very graphic for some reason.

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Cool Pick Up Artist images

Check out these pick up artist images:

Sons And Daughters
pick up artist

Image by Stuart Chalmers
Sons And Daughters live in Paisley Town Hall, 12th November 2008. Support from Errors and My Latest Novel. Both support well worth seeing again. Part of the Tennents Mutual, a lively gig by Sons And Daughters. Good mix of new and old stuff (personal favourites Johnny Cash, Rama Lama and Dance Me In among them) and (I thought so anyway) a good stage presence – seemed to be enjoying themselves. Not sure whether it was the town hall or soundman (or both) but the sound for the first two bands was excellent then went muddy for 3 or 4 songs at the start of Sons & Daughters set, but then seemed to pick up. Good gig overall!

As usual, dodgy pictures taken on my old camera, so played around with colour etc. in GIMP to try and make them look passable.

Sons And Daughters
pick up artist

Image by Stuart Chalmers
Sons And Daughters live in Paisley Town Hall, 12th November 2008. Support from Errors and My Latest Novel. Both support well worth seeing again. Part of the Tennents Mutual, a lively gig by Sons And Daughters. Good mix of new and old stuff (personal favourites Johnny Cash, Rama Lama and Dance Me In among them) and (I thought so anyway) a good stage presence – seemed to be enjoying themselves. Not sure whether it was the town hall or soundman (or both) but the sound for the first two bands was excellent then went muddy for 3 or 4 songs at the start of Sons & Daughters set, but then seemed to pick up. Good gig overall!

As usual, dodgy pictures taken on my old camera, so played around with colour etc. in GIMP to try and make them look passable.

Scott Paterson (Sons And Daughters)
pick up artist

Image by Stuart Chalmers
Sons And Daughters live in Paisley Town Hall, 12th November 2008. Support from Errors and My Latest Novel. Both support well worth seeing again. Part of the Tennents Mutual, a lively gig by Sons And Daughters. Good mix of new and old stuff (personal favourites Johnny Cash, Rama Lama and Dance Me In among them) and (I thought so anyway) a good stage presence – seemed to be enjoying themselves. Not sure whether it was the town hall or soundman (or both) but the sound for the first two bands was excellent then went muddy for 3 or 4 songs at the start of Sons & Daughters set, but then seemed to pick up. Good gig overall!

As usual, dodgy pictures taken on my old camera, so played around with colour etc. in GIMP to try and make them look passable.

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