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Yellow Sweetclower, Common Melilot, Melilotus officinalis….Cỏ Ba Lá ngọt ….#3
relationship advice

Image by Vietnam Plants & America plants
Taken on March 28, 2012 in Waco city, Texas state, Southern of The United States of America.

Vietnamese named : Cỏ Ba Lá ngọt .
Common names : Yellow Sweetclower, Common Melilot, Yellow Melilot, Ribbed Melilot.
Scientist name : Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. Sweetclover.
Synonyms :
Familly : Fabaceae – Pea family
Kingdom : Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom : Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision : Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division : Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class : Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass : Rosidae
Order :" Fabales
Genus : Melilotus Mill. – sweetclover
Species : Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. – sweetclover

**** www.bachkhoatrithuc.vn/encyclopedia/4668-02-6339309819081… :

_______________________________________________________

**** plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=meof
**** en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melilotus_officinalis

**** www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Melilotus+officinalis : Click on link to read enough information, please.
SynonymsM. arvensis.
Known Hazards The dried leaves can be toxic. though the fresh leaves are quite safe to use. This is possibly due to the presence of coumarin, the substance that gives some dried plants the smell of new mown hay, if taken internally it can prevent the blood clotting.
HabitatsGrassy fields and roadsides, avoiding acid soils[17].
RangeEurope to E. Asia. Naturalized in Britain.

Physical Characteristics
Melilotus officinalis is a ANNUAL/BIENNIAL growing to 1.2 m (4ft) by 0.7 m (2ft 4in).
It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.It can fix Nitrogen.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Habitats
Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root; Seedpod.
Edible Uses: Condiment.

Root[46, 105, 172]. Consumed as a food by the Kalmuks[183]. Young shoots – cooked. Used like asparagus[183]. Young leaves are eaten in salads[13]. The leaves and seedpods are cooked as a vegetable[8, 55, 172]. They are used as a flavouring[46]. Only fresh leaves should be used, see the notes above on toxicity[62]. The crushed dried leaves can be used as a vanilla flavouring in puddings, pastries etc[177, 183, 238]. Caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity. Flowers – raw or cooked[172]. The flowers and seeds are used as a flavouring[2]. The flowers also give an aromatic quality to some tisanes[7].

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antispasmodic; Aromatic; Carminative; Diuretic; Emollient; Expectorant; Ophthalmic; Vulnerary.

Melilot, used either externally or internally, can help treat varicose veins and haemorrhoids though it requires a long-term treatment for the effect to be realised[254]. Use of the plant also helps to reduce the risk of phlebitis and thrombosis[254]. Melilot contains coumarins and, as the plant dries or spoils, these become converted to dicoumarol, a powerful anticoagulant[254]. Thus the plant should be used with some caution, it should not be prescribed to patients with a history of poor blood clotting or who are taking warfarin medication[238]. See also the notes above on toxicity[21]. The flowering plant is antispasmodic, aromatic, carminative, diuretic, emollient, mildly expectorant, mildly sedative and vulnerary[4, 7, 9, 13, 21, 238, 240]. An infusion is used in the treatment of sleeplessness, nervous tension, neuralgia, palpitations, varicose veins, painful congestive menstruation, in the prevention of thrombosis, flatulence and intestinal disorders[7, 238]. Externally, it is used to treat eye inflammations, rheumatic pains, swollen joints, severe bruising, boils and erysipelas, whilst a decoction is added to the bath-water[9, 238]. The flowering plant is harvested in the summer and can be dried for later use[7]. A distilled water obtained from the flowering tops is an effective treatment for conjunctivitis[7].
Other Uses
Green manure; Repellent.

The leaves contain coumarin and they release the pleasant smell of newly mown hay when they are drying[238]. The leaves are dried and used as an insect repellent[169, 172], especially in order to repel moths from clothing[13, 100, 238]. They can be put in pillows, mattresses etc[178]. Poorly dried or fermented leaves produce a substance called dicoumarol. This is a potent anti-coagulant which is extremely poisonous in excess, it prevents the blood from coagulating and so it is possible to bleed to death from very small wounds. Dicoumarol is used in rat poisons[238]. The plant can be used as a green manure, enriching the soil with nitrogen as well a providing organic matter[238].
Cultivation details
Prefers a well-drained to dry neutral to alkaline soil in a sunny position[238]. Prefers a clay or a saline soil[13]. Dislikes shade. Established plants are drought tolerant[238]. The flowers are rich in pollen making this a good bee plant[4, 7, 8, 13]. If they are cut back before flowering, the plants will grow on for at least another year before dying[115]. The dried plant has a sweet aromatic fragrance like newly mown hay[245]. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[200].

Propagation
Seed – sow spring to mid-summer in situ[87]. Pre-soaking the seed for 12 hours in warm water will speed up the germination process, particularly in dry weather[K]. Germination will usually take place within 2 weeks.

**** health-from-nature.net/Yellow_Sweetclover.html
Common name: Yellow Sweetclower
Latin name: Melilotus officinalis
Other names: Common Melilot, Yellow Melilot, Ribbed Melilot
Family: Fabaceae
Habitat: The plant is native to Europe and Asia. It can be found in open fields, along roadsides and pastures.
Description: Yellow Sweetclover is a herbaceous annual or biennial plant. It can grow up to 2 meters in height. It has erect, channeled and furrowed stems, usually pubescent near the tip. Leaves are alternate and compound, with oblong and serrated leaflets. Flowers are small and yellow, grouped in terminal and axillary racemes.
Parts used: Whole plant
Useful components: Coumarine
Medicinal use: Yellow Sweetclover is considered to be an antibacterial, anticoagulant, astringent, laxative, carminative and emollient. The plant is very helpful in removing gas from the digestive system and in inducing urination. It can improve blood circulation, and be of great help in treatments of varicose veins and hemorrhoids. It can also be helpful in treatments of wounds, cuts and bruises. Used in form of a tea, Yellow Sweetclower is beneficial in cases of nervous tensions, painful menstruation, insomnia and palpitations.
Safety: Some herbs could react with certain medication. Therefore, it is advisable to consult your doctor before consumption of any herb.

**** www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/kings/melilotus.html

Anthoxanthum odoratum Carphephorus odoratissimus Dipteryx odorata Dipteryx oppositifolia Galium odoratum Hierochloe odorata Jumellea fragrans Melilotus albus Melilotus officinalis
The leaves and flowering tops of Melilotus officinalis, Willdenow (Melilotus vulgaris, Eaton and Wright; Trifolium officinale, Linné).
Nat. Ord.—Leguminosae.
COMMON NAMES: Sweet clover, Yellow melilot, Yellow melilot clover.
ILLUSTRATION: Johnson, Med. Bot. of N. A., Fig. 120.

Botanical Source, History and Description.—Yellow melilot has an erect, sulcate stem, about 3 (2 to 4) feet high, with spreading branches. The leaves are pinnately trifoliate; the leaflets obovate-oblong, obtuse and Smooth, with remote, mucronate teeth. The flowers are yellow, in one-sided, spicate, axillary, loose, paniculate racemes; the calyx half as long as the corolla; the legume ovoid and 2-seeded. The petals in this species are of about equal length. It is an indigenous annual, growing in alluvial meadows, and flowering in June. The whole plant is scented, having nearly the odor of the sweet-scented vernal grass, Anthoxanthum odoratum. The taste of the plant, when dried, is somewhat pungent, aromatic, and bitterish. A closely related species, the Melilotus officinalis of Desrousseaux (M. diffusa, Koch; M. arvensis, Walroth) of Europe, is collected also with the foregoing species. It has light-yellow flowers having short carinas, while the fruit is a transversely-rugose, obovate, usually 1-seeded legume. An American species, having white flowers, probably has virtues similar to yellow melilot. It is the Melilotus alba, Lamarck (Melilotus officinalis, Pursh; Melilotus officinalis, var. alba, Nuttall; Melilotus leucantha, Koch). In this species the standard is longer than the other petals. It is known as White melilot, White melilot clover, or Sweet-scented clover, and is a biennial, with an erect, robust, very branching, sulcate stem, 4 to 6 feet high. The leaflets are variable, oval, ovate, ovate-oblong, truncate, and mucronate at the apex, remotely serrate, and 1 or 2 inches long; stipules setaceous. The flowers are white, numerous, the racemes more loose and longer than in the first species. The petals are unequal, the banner longer than wings or keel, and the calyx shorter than the corolla by more than one-half. This plant grows in similar situations with M. officinalis, flowering in July and August, and having a sweet fragrance, which is improved upon being dried—(W.).

Chemical Composition.—The characteristic constituent of melilotus is the aromatic, crystallizable coumarin (C9H6O2), which is the anhydrid of ortho-coumaric acid (C6H4OH.CHCHCOOH). The latter, and hydrocoumaric (melilotic) acid (C6H4OH.CH2CH2COOH) likewise occur in the plant. Cumarin forms with melilotic acid a crystallizable compound (Zwenger and Bodenbender). Melilotol of Phipson (1875), is a volatile oil, probably the anhydrid (lactone) of melilotic acid. As much as 0.2 per cent has been obtained by distilling the fresh herb with water. Chenopodin, a crystallizable principle occurring quite frequently in various plants, was observed by Reinsch (1867) as a deposit from an alcoholic extract of Melilotus alba; it is probably identical with leucin (amido-caproic acid, C5H10NH2COOH) (Flückiger, Pharmacognosie, 1891).

Coumarin is also the odoriferous principle of many other plants, occurring, e. g., in Tonka beans where it was first discovered; in Liatris, Asperula odorata, etc. (see list of coumarin-bearing plants in Husemann and Hilger, Pflanzenstoffe, p. 1037). It was found in melilotus only in small quantity (about 0.04 per cent, in combination with melilotic acid). Coumarin is now obtained synthetically by the action of acetic anhydrid and sodium acetate upon the sodium compound of salicylic aldehyde (C6H4OHCHO). It forms hard, colorless prisms, melting at 67° C. (152.6° F.), and boiling at 291° C. (608° F.). It sublimes, however, at ordinary temperature, in the form of white needles; sometimes it is found in crystals on the herb. Coumarin is soluble in ether, volatile and fatty oils, in acetic and tartaric acids, also soluble in boiling alcohol, and requires 400 parts of cold, and 45 parts of hot water for solution. Hot alkalies convert it into ortho-coumaric acid.

Ɣ Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.—Melilotus (species), placed between woolen clothing, is used in Europe to guard against the ravages of the moth. The medicinal properties of melilotus are undoubtedly chiefly due to coumarin. Ɣ Many observers have found it peculiarly effective in certain painful disorders, particularly neuralgias of long standing and associated with debility. It is adapted to idiopathic neuralgic headaches, and to neuralgic affections not depending upon reflex causes, although it has given good results in headaches arising from painful disorders of the stomach. Recurring neuralgia, especially from cold or fatigue, have been promptly relieved by small doses of the drug. It relieves ovarian neuralgia sometimes as if by magic, and in dysmenorrhoea its beneficial effect is observed when lameness and soreness are prominent symptoms, and particularly when the trouble seems to follow the great sciatic nerve. Rheumatic cases, showing marked lameness, are also said to be cases for its exhibition. It is likewise of value in painful dysuria, colic, painful diarrhoea, and menstrual colic. Gastralgia, neuralgia of the stomach, and other abdominal viscera, have been promptly relieved by it, and a prominent symptom in these disorders, that has been met by the drug, is the coldness of the extremities. We should remember melilotus in painful states, with coldness, and marked soreness or tenderness to the touch. Dose of specific melilotus, 1 to 10 drops; of a strong tincture, 1 to 20 drops. The leaves and flowers of these two plants (M. officinalis and M. alba) are boiled in lard, and formed into an ointment, which is found of utility as an application to all kinds of ulcers. The Vanilla, or Seneca grass, used for a stimulant purpose, is the Hierochloë borealis.

Specific Indications and Uses.—Idiopathic headaches; long-standing neuralgias; coldness, tenderness, lameness or marked soreness of parts; painful menstruation with lameness or sensation of cold; menstrual colic; ovarian neuralgia; colic with diarrhoea and much flatus.

Related Drugs.—TONKA BEANS. These are derived from the Dipteryx odorata, Willdenow (Coumarouna odorata, Aublet, a large, papilionaceous tree inhabiting Guiana. The fruit consists of an oblong-ovate, 1-seeded legume. The seed, or part employed, is somewhat 2-edged, appearing compressed, blackish-brown in color, and has a brittle, shining, or fatty-like skin, is deeply rugose, and has an oily, pale-brown kernel. The seeds possess an aromatic, bitterish taste, and a balsamic, agreeable, vanilla-like odor. The chief constituent, and the one upon which its odor depends, is coumarin (see Melilotus), which is often found between the two halves of the seeds, and upon the surface, as an efflorescence. Coumarin was first observed in Tonka beans, in 1820, by Vogel, who held it to be benzoic acid. Guibourt soon afterward declared it to be a different substance, and gave it its present name. Tonka beans are about 2 inches long. A variety known as English Tonka beans, are smoother, smaller, and do not contain as much coumarin as the preceding, 108 grains having been yielded by 1 pound of true Tonka beans. The English Tonka bean is the seed of Dipteryx oppositifolia, Willdenow. Tonka depends undoubtedly upon coumarin for its virtues. Pronounced narcotic effects have been observed from coumarin, which is also a cardiac stimulant, and finally paralyzes the heart. Dr. Laurence Johnson attributes the evil effects of cigarette smoking to this principle, for among the substances used in preparing cigarettes are plants containing coumarin, notably Liatris odoratissima. A fluid extract of Tonka bean has been used in pertussis.

FAHAM LEAVES.—The leaves of Angraecum fragrans, belonging to the Orchidaceae. They have a strong and delicious aroma, and a sharp, aromatic taste. Introduced at one time in France as a substitute for ordinary tea. Fifteen grains are infused in a cup of cold water, brought to a boil for 10 minutes, poured into a closed container, and sweetened when partaken of. It comes from Mauritius and the Isle of Reunion, and contains coumarin.

Yellow Sweetclower, Common Melilot, Melilotus officinalis….Cỏ Ba Lá ngọt ….#8
relationship advice

Image by Vietnam Plants & America plants
Taken on March 28, 2012 in Waco city, Texas state, Southern of The United States of America.

Vietnamese named : Cỏ Ba Lá ngọt .
Common names : Yellow Sweetclower, Common Melilot, Yellow Melilot, Ribbed Melilot.
Scientist name : Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. Sweetclover.
Synonyms :
Familly : Fabaceae – Pea family
Kingdom : Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom : Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision : Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division : Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class : Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass : Rosidae
Order :" Fabales
Genus : Melilotus Mill. – sweetclover
Species : Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. – sweetclover

**** www.bachkhoatrithuc.vn/encyclopedia/4668-02-6339309819081… :

_______________________________________________________

**** plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=meof
**** en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melilotus_officinalis

**** www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Melilotus+officinalis : Click on link to read enough information, please.
SynonymsM. arvensis.
Known Hazards The dried leaves can be toxic. though the fresh leaves are quite safe to use. This is possibly due to the presence of coumarin, the substance that gives some dried plants the smell of new mown hay, if taken internally it can prevent the blood clotting.
HabitatsGrassy fields and roadsides, avoiding acid soils[17].
RangeEurope to E. Asia. Naturalized in Britain.

Physical Characteristics
Melilotus officinalis is a ANNUAL/BIENNIAL growing to 1.2 m (4ft) by 0.7 m (2ft 4in).
It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.It can fix Nitrogen.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Habitats
Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root; Seedpod.
Edible Uses: Condiment.

Root[46, 105, 172]. Consumed as a food by the Kalmuks[183]. Young shoots – cooked. Used like asparagus[183]. Young leaves are eaten in salads[13]. The leaves and seedpods are cooked as a vegetable[8, 55, 172]. They are used as a flavouring[46]. Only fresh leaves should be used, see the notes above on toxicity[62]. The crushed dried leaves can be used as a vanilla flavouring in puddings, pastries etc[177, 183, 238]. Caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity. Flowers – raw or cooked[172]. The flowers and seeds are used as a flavouring[2]. The flowers also give an aromatic quality to some tisanes[7].

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antispasmodic; Aromatic; Carminative; Diuretic; Emollient; Expectorant; Ophthalmic; Vulnerary.

Melilot, used either externally or internally, can help treat varicose veins and haemorrhoids though it requires a long-term treatment for the effect to be realised[254]. Use of the plant also helps to reduce the risk of phlebitis and thrombosis[254]. Melilot contains coumarins and, as the plant dries or spoils, these become converted to dicoumarol, a powerful anticoagulant[254]. Thus the plant should be used with some caution, it should not be prescribed to patients with a history of poor blood clotting or who are taking warfarin medication[238]. See also the notes above on toxicity[21]. The flowering plant is antispasmodic, aromatic, carminative, diuretic, emollient, mildly expectorant, mildly sedative and vulnerary[4, 7, 9, 13, 21, 238, 240]. An infusion is used in the treatment of sleeplessness, nervous tension, neuralgia, palpitations, varicose veins, painful congestive menstruation, in the prevention of thrombosis, flatulence and intestinal disorders[7, 238]. Externally, it is used to treat eye inflammations, rheumatic pains, swollen joints, severe bruising, boils and erysipelas, whilst a decoction is added to the bath-water[9, 238]. The flowering plant is harvested in the summer and can be dried for later use[7]. A distilled water obtained from the flowering tops is an effective treatment for conjunctivitis[7].
Other Uses
Green manure; Repellent.

The leaves contain coumarin and they release the pleasant smell of newly mown hay when they are drying[238]. The leaves are dried and used as an insect repellent[169, 172], especially in order to repel moths from clothing[13, 100, 238]. They can be put in pillows, mattresses etc[178]. Poorly dried or fermented leaves produce a substance called dicoumarol. This is a potent anti-coagulant which is extremely poisonous in excess, it prevents the blood from coagulating and so it is possible to bleed to death from very small wounds. Dicoumarol is used in rat poisons[238]. The plant can be used as a green manure, enriching the soil with nitrogen as well a providing organic matter[238].
Cultivation details
Prefers a well-drained to dry neutral to alkaline soil in a sunny position[238]. Prefers a clay or a saline soil[13]. Dislikes shade. Established plants are drought tolerant[238]. The flowers are rich in pollen making this a good bee plant[4, 7, 8, 13]. If they are cut back before flowering, the plants will grow on for at least another year before dying[115]. The dried plant has a sweet aromatic fragrance like newly mown hay[245]. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[200].

Propagation
Seed – sow spring to mid-summer in situ[87]. Pre-soaking the seed for 12 hours in warm water will speed up the germination process, particularly in dry weather[K]. Germination will usually take place within 2 weeks.

**** health-from-nature.net/Yellow_Sweetclover.html
Common name: Yellow Sweetclower
Latin name: Melilotus officinalis
Other names: Common Melilot, Yellow Melilot, Ribbed Melilot
Family: Fabaceae
Habitat: The plant is native to Europe and Asia. It can be found in open fields, along roadsides and pastures.
Description: Yellow Sweetclover is a herbaceous annual or biennial plant. It can grow up to 2 meters in height. It has erect, channeled and furrowed stems, usually pubescent near the tip. Leaves are alternate and compound, with oblong and serrated leaflets. Flowers are small and yellow, grouped in terminal and axillary racemes.
Parts used: Whole plant
Useful components: Coumarine
Medicinal use: Yellow Sweetclover is considered to be an antibacterial, anticoagulant, astringent, laxative, carminative and emollient. The plant is very helpful in removing gas from the digestive system and in inducing urination. It can improve blood circulation, and be of great help in treatments of varicose veins and hemorrhoids. It can also be helpful in treatments of wounds, cuts and bruises. Used in form of a tea, Yellow Sweetclower is beneficial in cases of nervous tensions, painful menstruation, insomnia and palpitations.
Safety: Some herbs could react with certain medication. Therefore, it is advisable to consult your doctor before consumption of any herb.

**** www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/kings/melilotus.html

Anthoxanthum odoratum Carphephorus odoratissimus Dipteryx odorata Dipteryx oppositifolia Galium odoratum Hierochloe odorata Jumellea fragrans Melilotus albus Melilotus officinalis
The leaves and flowering tops of Melilotus officinalis, Willdenow (Melilotus vulgaris, Eaton and Wright; Trifolium officinale, Linné).
Nat. Ord.—Leguminosae.
COMMON NAMES: Sweet clover, Yellow melilot, Yellow melilot clover.
ILLUSTRATION: Johnson, Med. Bot. of N. A., Fig. 120.

Botanical Source, History and Description.—Yellow melilot has an erect, sulcate stem, about 3 (2 to 4) feet high, with spreading branches. The leaves are pinnately trifoliate; the leaflets obovate-oblong, obtuse and Smooth, with remote, mucronate teeth. The flowers are yellow, in one-sided, spicate, axillary, loose, paniculate racemes; the calyx half as long as the corolla; the legume ovoid and 2-seeded. The petals in this species are of about equal length. It is an indigenous annual, growing in alluvial meadows, and flowering in June. The whole plant is scented, having nearly the odor of the sweet-scented vernal grass, Anthoxanthum odoratum. The taste of the plant, when dried, is somewhat pungent, aromatic, and bitterish. A closely related species, the Melilotus officinalis of Desrousseaux (M. diffusa, Koch; M. arvensis, Walroth) of Europe, is collected also with the foregoing species. It has light-yellow flowers having short carinas, while the fruit is a transversely-rugose, obovate, usually 1-seeded legume. An American species, having white flowers, probably has virtues similar to yellow melilot. It is the Melilotus alba, Lamarck (Melilotus officinalis, Pursh; Melilotus officinalis, var. alba, Nuttall; Melilotus leucantha, Koch). In this species the standard is longer than the other petals. It is known as White melilot, White melilot clover, or Sweet-scented clover, and is a biennial, with an erect, robust, very branching, sulcate stem, 4 to 6 feet high. The leaflets are variable, oval, ovate, ovate-oblong, truncate, and mucronate at the apex, remotely serrate, and 1 or 2 inches long; stipules setaceous. The flowers are white, numerous, the racemes more loose and longer than in the first species. The petals are unequal, the banner longer than wings or keel, and the calyx shorter than the corolla by more than one-half. This plant grows in similar situations with M. officinalis, flowering in July and August, and having a sweet fragrance, which is improved upon being dried—(W.).

Chemical Composition.—The characteristic constituent of melilotus is the aromatic, crystallizable coumarin (C9H6O2), which is the anhydrid of ortho-coumaric acid (C6H4OH.CHCHCOOH). The latter, and hydrocoumaric (melilotic) acid (C6H4OH.CH2CH2COOH) likewise occur in the plant. Cumarin forms with melilotic acid a crystallizable compound (Zwenger and Bodenbender). Melilotol of Phipson (1875), is a volatile oil, probably the anhydrid (lactone) of melilotic acid. As much as 0.2 per cent has been obtained by distilling the fresh herb with water. Chenopodin, a crystallizable principle occurring quite frequently in various plants, was observed by Reinsch (1867) as a deposit from an alcoholic extract of Melilotus alba; it is probably identical with leucin (amido-caproic acid, C5H10NH2COOH) (Flückiger, Pharmacognosie, 1891).

Coumarin is also the odoriferous principle of many other plants, occurring, e. g., in Tonka beans where it was first discovered; in Liatris, Asperula odorata, etc. (see list of coumarin-bearing plants in Husemann and Hilger, Pflanzenstoffe, p. 1037). It was found in melilotus only in small quantity (about 0.04 per cent, in combination with melilotic acid). Coumarin is now obtained synthetically by the action of acetic anhydrid and sodium acetate upon the sodium compound of salicylic aldehyde (C6H4OHCHO). It forms hard, colorless prisms, melting at 67° C. (152.6° F.), and boiling at 291° C. (608° F.). It sublimes, however, at ordinary temperature, in the form of white needles; sometimes it is found in crystals on the herb. Coumarin is soluble in ether, volatile and fatty oils, in acetic and tartaric acids, also soluble in boiling alcohol, and requires 400 parts of cold, and 45 parts of hot water for solution. Hot alkalies convert it into ortho-coumaric acid.

Ɣ Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.—Melilotus (species), placed between woolen clothing, is used in Europe to guard against the ravages of the moth. The medicinal properties of melilotus are undoubtedly chiefly due to coumarin. Ɣ Many observers have found it peculiarly effective in certain painful disorders, particularly neuralgias of long standing and associated with debility. It is adapted to idiopathic neuralgic headaches, and to neuralgic affections not depending upon reflex causes, although it has given good results in headaches arising from painful disorders of the stomach. Recurring neuralgia, especially from cold or fatigue, have been promptly relieved by small doses of the drug. It relieves ovarian neuralgia sometimes as if by magic, and in dysmenorrhoea its beneficial effect is observed when lameness and soreness are prominent symptoms, and particularly when the trouble seems to follow the great sciatic nerve. Rheumatic cases, showing marked lameness, are also said to be cases for its exhibition. It is likewise of value in painful dysuria, colic, painful diarrhoea, and menstrual colic. Gastralgia, neuralgia of the stomach, and other abdominal viscera, have been promptly relieved by it, and a prominent symptom in these disorders, that has been met by the drug, is the coldness of the extremities. We should remember melilotus in painful states, with coldness, and marked soreness or tenderness to the touch. Dose of specific melilotus, 1 to 10 drops; of a strong tincture, 1 to 20 drops. The leaves and flowers of these two plants (M. officinalis and M. alba) are boiled in lard, and formed into an ointment, which is found of utility as an application to all kinds of ulcers. The Vanilla, or Seneca grass, used for a stimulant purpose, is the Hierochloë borealis.

Specific Indications and Uses.—Idiopathic headaches; long-standing neuralgias; coldness, tenderness, lameness or marked soreness of parts; painful menstruation with lameness or sensation of cold; menstrual colic; ovarian neuralgia; colic with diarrhoea and much flatus.

Related Drugs.—TONKA BEANS. These are derived from the Dipteryx odorata, Willdenow (Coumarouna odorata, Aublet, a large, papilionaceous tree inhabiting Guiana. The fruit consists of an oblong-ovate, 1-seeded legume. The seed, or part employed, is somewhat 2-edged, appearing compressed, blackish-brown in color, and has a brittle, shining, or fatty-like skin, is deeply rugose, and has an oily, pale-brown kernel. The seeds possess an aromatic, bitterish taste, and a balsamic, agreeable, vanilla-like odor. The chief constituent, and the one upon which its odor depends, is coumarin (see Melilotus), which is often found between the two halves of the seeds, and upon the surface, as an efflorescence. Coumarin was first observed in Tonka beans, in 1820, by Vogel, who held it to be benzoic acid. Guibourt soon afterward declared it to be a different substance, and gave it its present name. Tonka beans are about 2 inches long. A variety known as English Tonka beans, are smoother, smaller, and do not contain as much coumarin as the preceding, 108 grains having been yielded by 1 pound of true Tonka beans. The English Tonka bean is the seed of Dipteryx oppositifolia, Willdenow. Tonka depends undoubtedly upon coumarin for its virtues. Pronounced narcotic effects have been observed from coumarin, which is also a cardiac stimulant, and finally paralyzes the heart. Dr. Laurence Johnson attributes the evil effects of cigarette smoking to this principle, for among the substances used in preparing cigarettes are plants containing coumarin, notably Liatris odoratissima. A fluid extract of Tonka bean has been used in pertussis.

FAHAM LEAVES.—The leaves of Angraecum fragrans, belonging to the Orchidaceae. They have a strong and delicious aroma, and a sharp, aromatic taste. Introduced at one time in France as a substitute for ordinary tea. Fifteen grains are infused in a cup of cold water, brought to a boil for 10 minutes, poured into a closed container, and sweetened when partaken of. It comes from Mauritius and the Isle of Reunion, and contains coumarin.

Yellow Sweetclower, Common Melilot, Melilotus officinalis….Cỏ Ba Lá ngọt ….#9
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Image by Vietnam Plants & America plants
Taken on March 28, 2012 in Waco city, Texas state, Southern of The United States of America.

Vietnamese named : Cỏ Ba Lá ngọt .
Common names : Yellow Sweetclower, Common Melilot, Yellow Melilot, Ribbed Melilot.
Scientist name : Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. Sweetclover.
Synonyms :
Familly : Fabaceae – Pea family
Kingdom : Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom : Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision : Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division : Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class : Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass : Rosidae
Order :" Fabales
Genus : Melilotus Mill. – sweetclover
Species : Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. – sweetclover

**** www.bachkhoatrithuc.vn/encyclopedia/4668-02-6339309819081… :

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**** plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=meof
**** en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melilotus_officinalis

**** www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Melilotus+officinalis : Click on link to read enough information, please.
SynonymsM. arvensis.
Known Hazards The dried leaves can be toxic. though the fresh leaves are quite safe to use. This is possibly due to the presence of coumarin, the substance that gives some dried plants the smell of new mown hay, if taken internally it can prevent the blood clotting.
HabitatsGrassy fields and roadsides, avoiding acid soils[17].
RangeEurope to E. Asia. Naturalized in Britain.

Physical Characteristics
Melilotus officinalis is a ANNUAL/BIENNIAL growing to 1.2 m (4ft) by 0.7 m (2ft 4in).
It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.It can fix Nitrogen.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Habitats
Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root; Seedpod.
Edible Uses: Condiment.

Root[46, 105, 172]. Consumed as a food by the Kalmuks[183]. Young shoots – cooked. Used like asparagus[183]. Young leaves are eaten in salads[13]. The leaves and seedpods are cooked as a vegetable[8, 55, 172]. They are used as a flavouring[46]. Only fresh leaves should be used, see the notes above on toxicity[62]. The crushed dried leaves can be used as a vanilla flavouring in puddings, pastries etc[177, 183, 238]. Caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity. Flowers – raw or cooked[172]. The flowers and seeds are used as a flavouring[2]. The flowers also give an aromatic quality to some tisanes[7].

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antispasmodic; Aromatic; Carminative; Diuretic; Emollient; Expectorant; Ophthalmic; Vulnerary.

Melilot, used either externally or internally, can help treat varicose veins and haemorrhoids though it requires a long-term treatment for the effect to be realised[254]. Use of the plant also helps to reduce the risk of phlebitis and thrombosis[254]. Melilot contains coumarins and, as the plant dries or spoils, these become converted to dicoumarol, a powerful anticoagulant[254]. Thus the plant should be used with some caution, it should not be prescribed to patients with a history of poor blood clotting or who are taking warfarin medication[238]. See also the notes above on toxicity[21]. The flowering plant is antispasmodic, aromatic, carminative, diuretic, emollient, mildly expectorant, mildly sedative and vulnerary[4, 7, 9, 13, 21, 238, 240]. An infusion is used in the treatment of sleeplessness, nervous tension, neuralgia, palpitations, varicose veins, painful congestive menstruation, in the prevention of thrombosis, flatulence and intestinal disorders[7, 238]. Externally, it is used to treat eye inflammations, rheumatic pains, swollen joints, severe bruising, boils and erysipelas, whilst a decoction is added to the bath-water[9, 238]. The flowering plant is harvested in the summer and can be dried for later use[7]. A distilled water obtained from the flowering tops is an effective treatment for conjunctivitis[7].
Other Uses
Green manure; Repellent.

The leaves contain coumarin and they release the pleasant smell of newly mown hay when they are drying[238]. The leaves are dried and used as an insect repellent[169, 172], especially in order to repel moths from clothing[13, 100, 238]. They can be put in pillows, mattresses etc[178]. Poorly dried or fermented leaves produce a substance called dicoumarol. This is a potent anti-coagulant which is extremely poisonous in excess, it prevents the blood from coagulating and so it is possible to bleed to death from very small wounds. Dicoumarol is used in rat poisons[238]. The plant can be used as a green manure, enriching the soil with nitrogen as well a providing organic matter[238].
Cultivation details
Prefers a well-drained to dry neutral to alkaline soil in a sunny position[238]. Prefers a clay or a saline soil[13]. Dislikes shade. Established plants are drought tolerant[238]. The flowers are rich in pollen making this a good bee plant[4, 7, 8, 13]. If they are cut back before flowering, the plants will grow on for at least another year before dying[115]. The dried plant has a sweet aromatic fragrance like newly mown hay[245]. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[200].

Propagation
Seed – sow spring to mid-summer in situ[87]. Pre-soaking the seed for 12 hours in warm water will speed up the germination process, particularly in dry weather[K]. Germination will usually take place within 2 weeks.

**** health-from-nature.net/Yellow_Sweetclover.html
Common name: Yellow Sweetclower
Latin name: Melilotus officinalis
Other names: Common Melilot, Yellow Melilot, Ribbed Melilot
Family: Fabaceae
Habitat: The plant is native to Europe and Asia. It can be found in open fields, along roadsides and pastures.
Description: Yellow Sweetclover is a herbaceous annual or biennial plant. It can grow up to 2 meters in height. It has erect, channeled and furrowed stems, usually pubescent near the tip. Leaves are alternate and compound, with oblong and serrated leaflets. Flowers are small and yellow, grouped in terminal and axillary racemes.
Parts used: Whole plant
Useful components: Coumarine
Medicinal use: Yellow Sweetclover is considered to be an antibacterial, anticoagulant, astringent, laxative, carminative and emollient. The plant is very helpful in removing gas from the digestive system and in inducing urination. It can improve blood circulation, and be of great help in treatments of varicose veins and hemorrhoids. It can also be helpful in treatments of wounds, cuts and bruises. Used in form of a tea, Yellow Sweetclower is beneficial in cases of nervous tensions, painful menstruation, insomnia and palpitations.
Safety: Some herbs could react with certain medication. Therefore, it is advisable to consult your doctor before consumption of any herb.

**** www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/kings/melilotus.html

Anthoxanthum odoratum Carphephorus odoratissimus Dipteryx odorata Dipteryx oppositifolia Galium odoratum Hierochloe odorata Jumellea fragrans Melilotus albus Melilotus officinalis
The leaves and flowering tops of Melilotus officinalis, Willdenow (Melilotus vulgaris, Eaton and Wright; Trifolium officinale, Linné).
Nat. Ord.—Leguminosae.
COMMON NAMES: Sweet clover, Yellow melilot, Yellow melilot clover.
ILLUSTRATION: Johnson, Med. Bot. of N. A., Fig. 120.

Botanical Source, History and Description.—Yellow melilot has an erect, sulcate stem, about 3 (2 to 4) feet high, with spreading branches. The leaves are pinnately trifoliate; the leaflets obovate-oblong, obtuse and Smooth, with remote, mucronate teeth. The flowers are yellow, in one-sided, spicate, axillary, loose, paniculate racemes; the calyx half as long as the corolla; the legume ovoid and 2-seeded. The petals in this species are of about equal length. It is an indigenous annual, growing in alluvial meadows, and flowering in June. The whole plant is scented, having nearly the odor of the sweet-scented vernal grass, Anthoxanthum odoratum. The taste of the plant, when dried, is somewhat pungent, aromatic, and bitterish. A closely related species, the Melilotus officinalis of Desrousseaux (M. diffusa, Koch; M. arvensis, Walroth) of Europe, is collected also with the foregoing species. It has light-yellow flowers having short carinas, while the fruit is a transversely-rugose, obovate, usually 1-seeded legume. An American species, having white flowers, probably has virtues similar to yellow melilot. It is the Melilotus alba, Lamarck (Melilotus officinalis, Pursh; Melilotus officinalis, var. alba, Nuttall; Melilotus leucantha, Koch). In this species the standard is longer than the other petals. It is known as White melilot, White melilot clover, or Sweet-scented clover, and is a biennial, with an erect, robust, very branching, sulcate stem, 4 to 6 feet high. The leaflets are variable, oval, ovate, ovate-oblong, truncate, and mucronate at the apex, remotely serrate, and 1 or 2 inches long; stipules setaceous. The flowers are white, numerous, the racemes more loose and longer than in the first species. The petals are unequal, the banner longer than wings or keel, and the calyx shorter than the corolla by more than one-half. This plant grows in similar situations with M. officinalis, flowering in July and August, and having a sweet fragrance, which is improved upon being dried—(W.).

Chemical Composition.—The characteristic constituent of melilotus is the aromatic, crystallizable coumarin (C9H6O2), which is the anhydrid of ortho-coumaric acid (C6H4OH.CHCHCOOH). The latter, and hydrocoumaric (melilotic) acid (C6H4OH.CH2CH2COOH) likewise occur in the plant. Cumarin forms with melilotic acid a crystallizable compound (Zwenger and Bodenbender). Melilotol of Phipson (1875), is a volatile oil, probably the anhydrid (lactone) of melilotic acid. As much as 0.2 per cent has been obtained by distilling the fresh herb with water. Chenopodin, a crystallizable principle occurring quite frequently in various plants, was observed by Reinsch (1867) as a deposit from an alcoholic extract of Melilotus alba; it is probably identical with leucin (amido-caproic acid, C5H10NH2COOH) (Flückiger, Pharmacognosie, 1891).

Coumarin is also the odoriferous principle of many other plants, occurring, e. g., in Tonka beans where it was first discovered; in Liatris, Asperula odorata, etc. (see list of coumarin-bearing plants in Husemann and Hilger, Pflanzenstoffe, p. 1037). It was found in melilotus only in small quantity (about 0.04 per cent, in combination with melilotic acid). Coumarin is now obtained synthetically by the action of acetic anhydrid and sodium acetate upon the sodium compound of salicylic aldehyde (C6H4OHCHO). It forms hard, colorless prisms, melting at 67° C. (152.6° F.), and boiling at 291° C. (608° F.). It sublimes, however, at ordinary temperature, in the form of white needles; sometimes it is found in crystals on the herb. Coumarin is soluble in ether, volatile and fatty oils, in acetic and tartaric acids, also soluble in boiling alcohol, and requires 400 parts of cold, and 45 parts of hot water for solution. Hot alkalies convert it into ortho-coumaric acid.

Ɣ Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.—Melilotus (species), placed between woolen clothing, is used in Europe to guard against the ravages of the moth. The medicinal properties of melilotus are undoubtedly chiefly due to coumarin. Ɣ Many observers have found it peculiarly effective in certain painful disorders, particularly neuralgias of long standing and associated with debility. It is adapted to idiopathic neuralgic headaches, and to neuralgic affections not depending upon reflex causes, although it has given good results in headaches arising from painful disorders of the stomach. Recurring neuralgia, especially from cold or fatigue, have been promptly relieved by small doses of the drug. It relieves ovarian neuralgia sometimes as if by magic, and in dysmenorrhoea its beneficial effect is observed when lameness and soreness are prominent symptoms, and particularly when the trouble seems to follow the great sciatic nerve. Rheumatic cases, showing marked lameness, are also said to be cases for its exhibition. It is likewise of value in painful dysuria, colic, painful diarrhoea, and menstrual colic. Gastralgia, neuralgia of the stomach, and other abdominal viscera, have been promptly relieved by it, and a prominent symptom in these disorders, that has been met by the drug, is the coldness of the extremities. We should remember melilotus in painful states, with coldness, and marked soreness or tenderness to the touch. Dose of specific melilotus, 1 to 10 drops; of a strong tincture, 1 to 20 drops. The leaves and flowers of these two plants (M. officinalis and M. alba) are boiled in lard, and formed into an ointment, which is found of utility as an application to all kinds of ulcers. The Vanilla, or Seneca grass, used for a stimulant purpose, is the Hierochloë borealis.

Specific Indications and Uses.—Idiopathic headaches; long-standing neuralgias; coldness, tenderness, lameness or marked soreness of parts; painful menstruation with lameness or sensation of cold; menstrual colic; ovarian neuralgia; colic with diarrhoea and much flatus.

Related Drugs.—TONKA BEANS. These are derived from the Dipteryx odorata, Willdenow (Coumarouna odorata, Aublet, a large, papilionaceous tree inhabiting Guiana. The fruit consists of an oblong-ovate, 1-seeded legume. The seed, or part employed, is somewhat 2-edged, appearing compressed, blackish-brown in color, and has a brittle, shining, or fatty-like skin, is deeply rugose, and has an oily, pale-brown kernel. The seeds possess an aromatic, bitterish taste, and a balsamic, agreeable, vanilla-like odor. The chief constituent, and the one upon which its odor depends, is coumarin (see Melilotus), which is often found between the two halves of the seeds, and upon the surface, as an efflorescence. Coumarin was first observed in Tonka beans, in 1820, by Vogel, who held it to be benzoic acid. Guibourt soon afterward declared it to be a different substance, and gave it its present name. Tonka beans are about 2 inches long. A variety known as English Tonka beans, are smoother, smaller, and do not contain as much coumarin as the preceding, 108 grains having been yielded by 1 pound of true Tonka beans. The English Tonka bean is the seed of Dipteryx oppositifolia, Willdenow. Tonka depends undoubtedly upon coumarin for its virtues. Pronounced narcotic effects have been observed from coumarin, which is also a cardiac stimulant, and finally paralyzes the heart. Dr. Laurence Johnson attributes the evil effects of cigarette smoking to this principle, for among the substances used in preparing cigarettes are plants containing coumarin, notably Liatris odoratissima. A fluid extract of Tonka bean has been used in pertussis.

FAHAM LEAVES.—The leaves of Angraecum fragrans, belonging to the Orchidaceae. They have a strong and delicious aroma, and a sharp, aromatic taste. Introduced at one time in France as a substitute for ordinary tea. Fifteen grains are infused in a cup of cold water, brought to a boil for 10 minutes, poured into a closed container, and sweetened when partaken of. It comes from Mauritius and the Isle of Reunion, and contains coumarin.

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