Cool Dating Tips For Men images

A few nice dating tips for men images I found:

MISSILE STONEWARE: Thor’s thunder~bolt~serpent “ingot”; Freya’s “βαυβóν”; Odin’s ferry~boat “dart”. MAGIC.κ.TOOL: hafted saxon knife (“seax”) & saw; hilted hammer & harpoon. ♦SACRED♦ADAMANTINE♦LIGHTNING♦SHUTTLE♦
dating tips for men

Image by quapan
──► DECK: Move your mouse over the above ło کee the noteς I’ve inکcribed onło the łhunderbolł-کerpenł’s deck. (Sept 2nd). ──► BOTTOM-UP: Odin’s ferry boat from beneath (Sept 15th). ──► STAR-BOARD: »thunder-boat« boomerangs around in wave-lines {keeled upon her port-side} (Oct 1st). ──► PORT-SIDE: is shaped in form of a nutshell (lune). It shows some remnants of the orange-red glaze. One of these is a big hot-spot of reddish (possibly iron-bearing) varnish. Upon all the seven levelled planes of the stoneware can be found traces of this warpaint. (Oct 16th).

▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▐► D I S C O V E R Y ◄▌ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼
On Wednesday, August 29th 2007, one day after the full august moon, between sunset (20:03) and moonrise (20:18) I stumbled across a magick stone and picked it up. It was strikingly wedge-shaped. I was somehow happy to have found anything. Why did it have these three longsides? An underside, an outside and an inside. Was it possibly a hand axe or something like that?
I stayed alone upon the hill and took some photos of the nightlighted Berlin-Silhouette. The Moon of Alabama had risen up through the clouds over the horizon and was shining brightly. So I could make notes into my rough book. Next day deciphering what I had scribbled under the pale shimmer of the moonlight I was taken aback recognizing it as a grapholalia: »I’n tototally lunactiv ….«

Four days later on a sunday afternoon, September 2nd 2007, I began to investigate the architecture and design of the beautiful piece again. Suddenly I was recognizing with delight: The stone was the ideal tool for hunters & collectors: It is multifunctional.
Dart the missile ! The pointed keel will stabilize the ballistics of its trajectory !
With the proximal phalanx of the thumb at the hilt, you can use it as a little pestle (triangular area: 1,5 x 1,5 x 1,5 cm) – turn it by 180 degrees – and you can have a hand-chisel (‘nutcracker’) with a punch-area of 2,5 x 1,5 cm.
But preeminently you can use it as a hand hammer to stun birds or little animals by a blow, subsequently turn the hand-palm by 90 degrees and you get a hand knife with a 3-cm-blade between the tips of thumb and index – to cut the throats of your already dazed victims.

DESCRIPTION
HAFT: The back quarter of the artifact has been shaped slightly bent to customize it to the fist (‘claw’) of a right-hander that must not have had very long finger-digits to provide firm and tight handholds.
BLADE: At the knife head there is a cutting edge that has a length of approximately three centimeters. It lies between two flattened triangular planes having obviously served as handles for the tip of the index finger (2cm x 2cm x 2cm) and and the tip of the thumb (3cm x 3cm x 1,5cm). A third flattened area is even larger. This one is not triangular but rectangular (4cm x 2,5cm) and gave hold for the thumb ball. The blade has one big flake scar (1,3 x 0,7cm) upon the outside and many little flake scars upon the inside (1,1 x 0,5cm).

Outward Appearance:
At first sight the piece looks a little bit like a meteorite. It has an oblong shape. The colour is darkly brown. At some parts it is covered with something that looks like rust . This maybe partly caused by iron oxide from the impurities of the fired clays used to produce the stoneware ("Darker clays often contain iron and other metal oxide impurities") but more likely these spots are the remnants of the red varnish that was used to mark the stoneware as destined for war. (–>Was ist Religion?)

Impregnable: The texture of the surface is vitrious, hence it is astounding water repellent and hygrophobic. Water rolls off from the stylized phallus with its retracted, rippling foreskin (→ notes) as if it was contrived as a glans. Possibly this impregnation was achieved by firing it two times, the second time with a much lower temperature and spread with a special glaze.
Circumstantial phenomena give evidence that the piece is not a rough-hewn stone or a earthenware but a fired stoneware. Arguments: Fired Stoneware generally absorbs up to 5% water whereas Earthenware absorbs more than 10%. Additionally stoneware is in contrast to earthenware freeze resistant !

Versatility & Mercuriality
Versatile & mercurial like a Six Blade Knife it is trivially or ritually useable as a mêlée or ranged weapon:
hammer | baubón | knife | pestle | harpoon | missile | …. | ….

Fragrance: If I touch with my nose the stoneware in order to inhale the flagrant gas which it is still exuding I can smell the New World Odour that had to take place as soon as these serendipitous people which have made this warhead in their smelting furnaces had discovered how to extract iron from their clays . The Hellenics reported the invention of iron originated from Scythia but possibly those Scythians were or received it from the ethnicities living at that time just where I have found this weapon – around the rivers Wuhle, Spree and Havel.

Time Line: I guess this ingot was forged on the verge of iron age. This would mean it was hiding for about 3000 years upon the summit of that germanic cradle hill.

Ground Plan (germanic / mexican mytho-theology)
The Ground Plan of the underside was wedged in the shape of a lune. But then the potter had to take into account mythological considerations: At the backside of the stone the broken off apex of the moon sickle (lune, crescent moon) shall remind us to the broken off hammer-shaft. The frontside tip (length=3 cm) was purposely bent against the suppossed direction – to starboard.
The bow is bent to the port side, and the stern is bent to starboard. So the ground plan of the (rock[et]) ship resembles either the rune eihwaz (yew tree) {which looks like a straightened question mark} or the rune sōwulō (sun).
But there is a much simpler answer to the problem of this winding ground line: The powerful tool of the Mexíca God Quetzalcoatl (Quetzal ‘feather of the quetzal’ & coatl ‘snake’) is the lightning snake and – as you may know – "the serpent is both a fertility and lightning symbol among many peoples" (Aztec Beliefs "Quetzalcoatl sailed away on a raft of serpents and the people looked forward to his return".). The stoneware is shaped like a boat, has a winding ground line and scales like a snake, – and therefore reminds us to the serpent-raft of Quetzalcoatl.
—> The germanic Donnar [Thor], the powerful fertility and lightning God, stands in significant analogy to the mexican Quetzalcoatl [mayan Kukulcan].
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EVOLUTION: The scales of the fishes transformed to the scales of the reptiles and the scales of the reptiles transformed to the feathers of the birds.
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The Eleven Planes
The ingot has 3 levelled large planes: inside, outside and underside.
There are 4 levelled smaller planes: 3 of them are for the fingertips, 1 of them for the thumb ball.
There are 4 not levelled smaller planes. One of them is the backside.

Sizes:
___length:_ 11,0 cm
___width :__ 3,5 cm
___height:__ 4,5 cm
blade-length: 3 cm____

Specific Density ρ
m = 0,212 kg; V ~ 80 ml → ρ (thunder~bolt) ~ 2,7 gram/ccm
Compare with:
ρ(granite)= 2.6 gram/ccm; ρ(concrete)= 2.5 gram/ccm; ρ (water) = 1.0 gram/ccm; ρ (ice) = 0.9 gram/ccm; ρ (Earth) = 5.5 gram/ccm; ρ(steel)= 7.7 gram/ccm;

Fracture Toughness
The thunder~bolt seems to be very adamantine. It has presumably a higher Fracture Toughness than granite.

▼ ▼ ▼ ▐► Germanic Tracks ◄▌ (Thor,Odin,Freya,…)▼ ▼ ▼
The trisided stoneware has a handle that is bent (‘Boomerang’) and somehow ‘broken off’. With its phallic shape, it could have had easily represented a ‘Mjolnir’.
There are some scratchers upon the surface. One of them seems to resemble the Futhark Rune nauÞiz which stands for Need/Hardship.
Upon a summit of a hill I stumbled across this fired thunder~bolt and a few days later (September 5th 2007) I have found at this site a fired bird panel made from the same sort of clay and the granite artefact buffalo BEROLINA which is a pestle with a mortar-tail.
„In ein Haus, in dem ein Donnerkeil ist oder Feuer auf dem Heerd brennt, oder ein Vogel ein Nest gebaut hat, schlägt der Blitz nicht ein.” (aus Lauthenthal, n. KUHN u. SCHWARTZ, 411) [Schwarzes Netz]
Thor’s Hammer Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah (1999)
Thor (wikipedia.de)
"Thor im Norden, oder Donar bei den kontinentalen germanischen Völkern .. In den eddischen Schriften hat er die Aufgabe des Beschützers von Midgard, der Welt der Menschen. ….„Jupiter tonans“, Zeus, der keltische Taranis, sie nutzen als Waffe den steinernen Donnerkeil, der durch den Blitzstrahl vom Himmel zur Erde geworfen wird.
… wenn er seinen Kraftgürtel Megingjarder umschnallt, der ihm doppelte Kraft verleiht, mit seinen Eisenhandschuhen den Hammer Mjölnir fasst …Da sagte Thrym, der Thursen König: „Bringt den Hammer, die Braut zu weihen! Leget Mjöllnir der Maid in den Schoß! Mit der Hand der War weiht uns zusammen!“
Das Herz im Leib lachte da Thor, als der hartgemute den Hammer sah: erst traf er Thrym, der Thursen König; der Riesen Geschlecht erschlug er ganz. {Das Thrymlied (Þrymskviða)}
Einst stahl Thrym Thor seinen Hammer, als dieser schlief. Als Thor aufwacht gerät er in hilflose Wut, als er sich seiner wichtigsten Waffe beraubt sieht. Loki fliegt, mit Freyas Federkleid ausgestattet, durch die Gegend und erspät Thors Hammer in Riesenheim und stellt Thrym zur Rede. Thrym will ihn nur unter der Bedingung zurückgeben, dass er die Göttin Freya zur Frau bekommt. Freya gerät allerdings in große Wut, als Loki ihr dies erzählt. Daraufhin schlägt Loki vor, Thor selbst als Freya zu verkleiden ihn als Braut zu schmücken, um ihn Thrym als Freya zu präsentieren. Thor hat Bedenken, dass man ihn auslachen könnte, sieht sich allerdings genötigt, auf diesen Plan einzugehen. Beide reisen in Verkleidung als Braut und Brautbegleiterin zu Thrym. Thor fällt durch das Donnern, das seine Reise begleitet, seinen stechenden Blick, als Thrym ihm den Brautkuss geben möchte und seine unglaubliche Gefräßigkeit beim Brautfest auf, Loki weiß allerdings Thrym immer wieder zu beruhigen. Zur Vollendung der Festlichkeiten lässt der Riesenfürst seiner Braut schließlich Thors Hammer Mjölnir in den Schoß legen. Woraufhin der Donnergott seinen Hammer fasst und alle anwesenden erschlägt. …
Thor trägt seinen Hammer Mjölnir und den Machtgürtel Megingiard. Wenn Thor den Hammer wegschleudert kommt dieser immer wieder zurück. Aus einer isländischen Handschrift des 18. Jhs.
Mjölnir Snorri Sturluson berichtet in seiner Snorra-Edda (in den Skáldskaparmál) von der Erschaffung des Hammers. Mjölnir (der auch sog. Uru-Hammer) wurde von den beiden Zwergen Sindri und Brokk aus Uru-Erz geschmiedet und besitzt die Eigenschaft, dass er, wenn er geworfen wird, nie sein Ziel verfehlt und wieder in die Hand des Werfers zurückkehrt. Außerdem kann er nur von Thor geführt werden. Es heißt, dass Loki in Gestalt einer Fliege den Zwerg Brokk, der in der Schmiede das Feuer schürte, in die Stirn stach, so dass der Schaft des Hammers zu kurz geriet.
Mjolnir In Norse mythology, Mjolnir (also spelled Mjölnir, Mjöllnir, Mjollner, Mjølnir, Mjølner, or Mjölner) (IPA pronunciation: [mjolnər]) "Mjolnir" simply means "mealer" referring to its pulverizing effect. It is related to words such as the Icelandic verbs mölva (to crush) and mala (to grind), but similar words, all stemming from the Proto-Indo-European root melə can be found in almost all European languages, e.g. the Slavic melvo (grain to be ground) and molotu (hammer), the Dutch meel (meal), the Russian Молоток (molotok – hammer), the Greek μύλος (mylos – mill) and the Latin malleus (hammer) as well as the Latin mola (mill). The English meal, mill and maul are direct relatives, while mallet and molar arrived via Latin. It has been suggested that although the name reflects Mjolnir’s awesome powers it might also allude to Thor’s agricultural nature, as he was primarily worshipped by farmers. An alternative theory suggests that Mjolnir might be related to the Russian word молния (molniya) and the Welsh word mellt (both words being translated as "lightning"). This second theory parallels with the idea that Thor, being a god of thunder, therefore might have used lightning as his weapon.[1]
Mjolnir is said to be the most fearsome weapon in Norse mythology, and is used to slay any challengers to Æsir supremacy. It is often referred to as either a club, axe, or hammer, and is capable of toppling giants and destroying mountains with a single blow.[2]
Legends surrounding the war hammer’s origins vary: some relate that the Svartalf Sindri and Brokkr made it at the command of Loki; other tales contend that it descended to earth as a meteorite. Consequently, many Norse polytheists believed that lightning strikes were a manifestation of Mjolnir on earth.
Mjolnir is often represented with a bent handle. The rune Tiwaz (↑), usually thought to be a symbol of the god Tyr, is thought by some to represent Thor’s hammer. Mjolnir may also mean fertility, the phallus that impregnates the earth.
Sometimes Mjolnir is compared to a boomerang, due to its ability to return to its thrower. Usually, it is used as normal war hammer. There may be a connection between Thor’s throwing hammer and the francisca throwing axes of the Franks.
Snorri’s Edda gives a detailed description of Mjolnir’s special qualities:
"…He [Thor] would be able to strike as firmly as he wanted, whatever his aim, and the hammer would never fail, and if he threw it at something, it would never miss and never fly so far from his hand that it would not find its way back, and when he wanted, it would be so small that it could be carried inside his tunic."[4]
Freyja In Norse Mythology and Germanic Mythology, Freyja (sometimes anglicized as Freya) is sister of Freyr and daughter of Njord. She is usually seen as a Norse fertility goddess. – Freyja was also a goddess of war, battle, death, magic, prophecies and wealth. Freyja is cited as receiving half of the dead lost in battle in her hall Fólkvangr, whereas Odin would receive the other half.
Freya Scandinavian Mythology the goddess of love and of the night, sister of Frey. Often identified with Frigga. [NODE]
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Odin / Wotan verdrängte den Himmelsvater Tyr, Allvater, Göttergeschlecht der Asen in Asgard (Krone der Weltenesche Yggdrasil)
asatru.de "seine beiden Brüdern Vili und Vé (Hönir und Lodur) .. Mit der Göttin Jörd (Erde) hat Odin den Sohn Thor (Donar). Attribute Odins sind sein Speer (Gungnir), sein Ring (Draupnir), die beiden Raben Huginn (Gedanke) und Muninn (Erinnerung), sein achtbeiniges Pferd Sleipnir und seine Wölfe Freki (der Gefräßige) und Geri (der Gierige). Einäugigkeit, Hut, (blauer) Mantel ." (Birka Vibeke in recht pomadigem Stil auf der Rieger-Site)
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Official THUNDERBOLT Website Norwegian Black Heavy Metal Rocker (2002 ff)
thunderbolt (en.wikipedia) A thunderbolt is a traditional expression for a discharge of lightning or a symbolic representation thereof. In its original usage the word may also have been a description of meteors … In Norse mythology, Odin‘s spear Gungnir is an embodiment of lightning. In addition, his son, Thor is specifically the god of thunder and lightning, wielding Mjolnir.
thunderbolt (poetic/literary) a flash of lightning with a simultaneous crash of thunder – a supposed bolt or shaft believed to be the destructive agent in lightning flash, especially as an attribute of a god such as Jupiter or Thor – used in similes and comparisons to refer to very sudden or unexpected event or item of news, especially of an unpleasant nature [NODE p.1935]
The quieter and darker it is the lighter the flash and the louder the thunder. (November,1st,2007)

Valknut is a symbol consisting of three interlocked triangles. The symbol appears on Scandinavian rune stones in connection with Odin.
According to H. R. Ellis Davidson (p. 146), the valknut — is thought to symbolize the power of the god Odin to bind or unbind [a man's mind] … so that men became helpless in battle, and he could also loosen the tensions of fear and strain by his gifts of battle-madness, intoxication, and inspiration.
The Valknut symbol plays a role in modern Germanic neopagan faiths drawn from Germanic paganism, particularly
perplex verb (of somethng complicated or unaccountable) cause someone to feel completely baffled – dated: complicate or confuse (a matter)
Ásatrú, where numerous explanations and interpretations of the symbol are given. The symbol is also called : heart of the slain; heart of Vala; Hrungnir’s heart; Odin’s knot; Star of Wotan
ship burial or boat grave is a burial in which a ship or boat is used either as a container for the dead and the grave goods, or as a part of the grave goods itself. If the ship is very small, it is called a boat grave. This style of burial was used in the Vendel era and by the Anglo Saxons, the Merovingians, the Vikings and occasionally the Ancient Egyptians. This burial was seen as a way for the dead to sail to Valhalla, ship burial was a high honour.
human sacrifice and boat grave A detailed eyewitness account of a human sacrifice by what may have been a Völva was given by Ahmad ibn Fadlan as part of his account of an embassy to the Volga Bulgars in 921. In his description of the funeral of a Scandinavian chieftain, a slave girl volunteers to die with her master. After ten days of festivities, she is stabbed to death by an old woman (a sort of priestess who is referred to as ‘Angel of Death’) and burnt together with the deceased in his boat.

▐► Seax ◄▌
(also Hadseax, Sax, Seaxe, Scramaseax and Scramsax), was a type of Germanic single-edged knife.[1] Seax seem to have been used primarily as a tool but may also have been a weapon in extreme situations.[2] They occur in a size range from 7.5 cm to 75 cm. The larger ones (langseax) were probably weapons, the smaller ones (hadseax) tools, intermediate sized ones serving a dual purpose.[2] Wearing a seax may have been indicative of freemanship, much like the possession of a spear since only free men had the right to bear arms.[2] The seax was worn in a horizontal sheath at the front of the belt.[3] Scram refers to food and seax to a blade (so, "food knife").[4][2] The Saxons may have derived their name from seax (the implement for which they were known) in much the same way that the Franks were named for their francisca.[4] The seax has a lasting symbolic impact in the English counties of Middlesex and Essex, which both feature three seaxes in their ceremonial emblem.
The Anglo Saxon Broken Back Seax The majority of seaxes have quite short tangs, between 3cm and 7cm long. .. First and foremost is its distinctive "broken back" blade shape. … Its sharp wedge shape gives it great—even armour-piercing—strength. A cutting blow would smash flesh and bone beneath mail. On an unarmoured body, a cut would prove to be crippling or deadly. Likewise, its needle point would make thrusts devastating to the human body.

▐►Christianization Wars and Laws ◄▌
– against the saxon tribes on the continent and in England

Charlemagne enforced Christianization upon Saxons on the continent (772 – 804)
The word ‘Saxon’ is believed to be derived from the word seax, meaning a variety of single-edged knives. The Saxons were considered by Charlemagne’s historian Einhard (Vita Caroli c.7), to be especially war-like and ferocious.
The Saxons long resisted both becoming Christians ("they are much given to devil worship," Einhard said, "and they are hostile to our religion," as when they martyred the Saints Ewald, 695) and being incorporated into the orbit of the Frankish kingdom, but were decisively conquered by Charlemagne in a long series of annual campaigns, the Saxon Wars (772 – 804). During Charlemagne’s campaign in Hispania (778), the Saxons advanced to Deutz on the Rhine and plundered along the river. With defeat came the enforced baptism and conversion of the Saxon leaders and their people. Even their sacred tree, Irminsul, was destroyed.
Baptism Vow After the defeat against the Franks in the 8th century every saxon warrior had to forsake "Thunaer ende Uoden ende Saxnote ende allum them unholdum", (i.e. any old deities were bunched together as a triade and so should be publicly exorcized out of him the whole germanic pantheon,) and in place of it he had to commit himself to the confession in the frankish-christian ‘monotheistic’ trinity of father, son and ghost.
It’s not only demonizing and breaking down the old deities and replacing them by the new ones but denouncing polytheism by naming any old gods

Forsachistu diabolae?
ET RESPONDET: ec forsacho diabolae.
end allum diabolgelde?
RESPONDET: end ec forsacho allum diobolgeldae.
end allum dioboles uuercum?
RESPONDET: end ec forsacho allum diaboles uuercum and uuordum, Thunaer ende Uoden ende Saxnote ende allum them unholdum, the hira genotas sint.
gelobistu in got alamehtigan fadaer?
ec gelobo in got alamehtigan fadaer.
gelobistu in Crist godes suno?
ec gelobo in Crist gotes suno.
gelobistu in halogan gast?
ec gelobo in halogan gast.

‘… and all the diabolic sacrifices?
HE HAS TO ANSWER: and I forsake all diabolic works and words, Thunaer {anglosaxon transcription of Donnar-Thor} and Uuoden {Wotan-Odin} and Saxnote {?} and all the villains who are their comrades.’
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The Saxons {.de: Sachsen} were a confederation of Old Germanic tribes.
Saxony in the names of states existing in the FRG today: Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Free State of Saxony.

King Edgar orders to extinguish heathendom (10th century)
"We teach that every priest shall extinguish heathendom and forbid wilweorthunga (fountain worship), licwiglunga (incantations of the dead), hwata (omens), galdra (magic), man worship and the abominations that men exercise in various sorts of witchcraft, and in frithspottum (peace-enclosures) with elms and other trees, and with stones, and with many phantoms." (source: 16th Canon law enacted under King Edgar in the 10th century.)

▐► Structuralistic, mythological Remarks: ◄▌(hellenic | germanic)
○ Lightning and thunder are weapons of Zeus, given from from the one-eyed Cyclops. Lightning and thunder are weapons given to Thor from the one-eyed Odin.
Lightning & Thunder – Double: Zeus & Bromios = Odin & Thor. The Sagittarius-Starsign of nowadays originates from a germanic glyph for Odin & Thor .
○ Zeus against Titans = Thor againts Thursen

▐► Polytheistic Perplexism versus Monotheistic Monadism ◄▌
The gods in ancient polytheistic religions are not simple entities like the prophets or saints in our monotheistic religions. They are ‘interwoven’. The symbol that was named ‘valknut’ by modern scholars stands for the perplexity of the polytheistic pantheon. (klp, sept.15th 2007)
"Don’t Get It Twisted!" [Tupac Shakur / Gwen Stefani (2006)]

▐► Βαυβώ & βαυβών ◄▌
Baubo war im Mythos der griechischen Antike die Amme der Fruchtbarkeitsgöttin Demeter. Als deren Tochter Kore von Hades entführt wird, erheitert Baubo die trauernde Demeter durch obszöne Gesten und Witze. Baubo bedeutet im Altgriechischen „Schoß“ und war ein Beiname der Unterweltgöttin Hekate. Sie trat auch unter dem Namen Jambe in Erscheinung, war dann die Personifizierung des obszönen Gesanges im jambischen Versmaß. Später wurde der Begriff Baubo zur Bezeichnung eines alten Weibes verwandt. In Goethes Faust ist von der Hexe Baubo die Rede, wie sie auf einer Sau durch die Walpurgisnacht reitet.
βαυβώ, ἡ, = κοιλία, Empedocles Poeta Philosophus {153}. 1.cavity of the body, i.e. thorax with abdomen 2. belly,abdomen 3.intestines 4.excrement [LSJ]
βαυβών,ῶνος,ὁ,=ὄλισβος, Herodas Mimographus. 6.19. (→ Ed. W. Headlam & A.D.Knox, Cambridge 1922) [LSJ]
ὄλισβος,ὁ, penis coriaceus, Cratinus 316, Aristophanes Lysistrata 109,Fragmenta 320.13, ὀλισβοκόλλιξ loaf in the shape of an ὄλισβος, Comica Adespota 1094 [LSJ]
Baubo (Βαυβώ):
Gattin des Dysaules, Mutter der Mise, Figur der altorphischen Demetersage [dtv Der kleine Pauly, S.843], der Iambe des Homerischen Hymnus entsprechend. Während Iambe den Brauch des twthasmos in den eleusinischen Mysterien verkörpert, gibt die Episode von der die trauernde Deo-Demter erheiternde Entblößung der B. das Aition für eine bestimmte Form kultischer Exhibition (M. Delcourt Hermaphrodite, 1958, 49), die einen dem Iambismos analogen Sinne gehabt haben muß ([3], 29, Vgl. C. Sittl, Die Gebärden der Griechen und Römer, 1890, 104) . Nach S. Reinach Cultes, Mythes et Religions 4,1912, 116ff. und Wehrli a.O.81 wäre er apotropäisch; dagegen wollte Ch.Picard, RHR 25, 1927, 220ff. (zustimmend M.J. Lagrange, Rev. Bibl. 38, 1929, 76ff. und A. Loisy Les mysteres paiens et le mystére chretien, 1930, 68,1), – gestützt auf das Fragment von Empedocles und die Glosse des Herodas – , die Beziehung eines mit Iambe-Iambos vergleichbaren Paares βαυβώ-βαυβών zu den Sexualsymbolen κίστη- κάλαθος der zentralen eleusinischen Kulthandlung herstellen. (vgl. J. Dey Palingenesia, NTA 17,5 1937, 41ff.. 49ff. Für sprachlichen Zusammenhang zwischen Baubo und βαυβών auch Dieterich a.O. 127 und L. Rademacher RhM 59, 1904, 312f gegen Rohde Psyche 2,408, dessen Ableitung von dem Schallwort βαύ gleich wohl von Rademacher a.O. 311f akzeptiert wird. Wie Rohde und R. Eisler, Ph.68, 1909, 136,71, sieht er in B. einen zum Typ der Mormo, Gello, Gorgo gehörigen, ursprünglich hundegestaltigen weiblichen Schreckdämon (vgl. Orph. fr.53 Th. Hopfner Griechisch-Ägyptischer Offenbarungszauber,1,1921,51) aus dem nächtlichen Gefolger der Hekate, mit der spätorphische Tradition sie übrigens gleichsetzt (Hymn. Mag. 3,2 E. Abel Orphica, 1885, 289. Vgl. O. Kern, AM 16, 1891, 7.2. Dieterich a.O. 128). Die Sexualsymbolik von βαυβώ-βαυβών wird durch den Hinweis auf κύων-αἰδοῖον (Phot. Hesych.Eust.1822,13ff) damit in Einklang gebracht. Anderereseits hat die Variante Βαβώ, außer in dem bei Michael Psellos erhaltenen Orph.fr. 53 und einem kaiserzeitlichen epigr. Zeugnis aus Galatien (CIG 4142) noch durch die Inschrift von Paros belegt im Hinblick auf die Rolle der B. als Amme der Demeter (Hesych.) zu der Deutung "die (dämon.) alte Frau" (Baba-Boba) geführt (E. de Martino), für die man volkskundliche Parallelen zur Verfügung hat (W.Mannhardt, Mytholog. Forschungen,1884, 299ff). – Die Paros-Inschrift nennt B. zusammen mit den Hauptgottheiten von Eleusis Demeter, Thesmophoros, Kore und Zeus Eubuleus; das spricht für allte vororphische Zugehörigkeit zum eleusinischen Kultverein. Geographisch weist sie neben CIG 4142, der thebanischen Mänade B. zu Magnesia und der B. Tochter Mise auf den anatolischen Raum. Ihm entstammt auch die Gespenster Herrin Hecate-Brimo; ihr Konnex zum Kreis der Demeter als deren ehemalige Konkurrentin ist im hom. Hymnus noch faßbar (Wehrli, a.O.82f.). B. dürfte demnach eine selbständige Form der in die Demeterreligion eingedrungenen kleinasiatischen Göttin gewesen sein, deren nächtlich schreckensvolle Natur zum derb-komischen Gebaren eines häßlichen alten Weibes verharmlost wurde. Für den Sinn des obszönen Gestus ist die Version wichtig, nach der Demeter selbst ihn ausführt. Er gehörte also der großen Göttin, deren freundliche segenspendende Seite durch Demeter-Baubo (de Martino, a.O. 75ff. Vgl. K. Pruemm Der christliche Glaube und die altheidnische Welt 1, 1935, 350), deren düstere durch Hekate-Baubo vertreten wird. Der situs des ἀνάσυρμα hat dementsprechend gleich der Aischrologie der Gephyrismen apotropäisch-schreckende wie protreptisch-fruchtbarkeitsfördernde Funktion. Im Zusammenhang damit ist das von E. Hahn Demeter und Baubo,1896,54ff. zusammengestellte folkloristische Material über kult. αἰσχρολογία und αἰσχρουργία von Interesse; ebenso mit Rücksicht auf die Verbindung von τωϑασμός und ἀνάσυρμα bei den Frauen von Bubastis (Hdt. 2.60. A. Wiedemann Herodots 2. Buch, 1890,256), die von I. Lévy Mél. F.Cumont, 1936,819ff herangezogene ägyptische Überlieferung über rituelle Exhibition und rituelles Lachen (vgl. J. Capart, BAB 17, 1931, 421), ohne daß man daraus mit P.Foucart Les mystères d’Eleusis, 1914, 467ff. A. Koerte, ARW 18, 1915,120 und Lévy a.O. 832f eine Übernahme der Baubo-Gestalt aus Ägypten folgern müßte. Der Typus der ϑεὰ ἀνασυρομένη, wie ihn die gastrokephalen Statuetten von Priene (Th. Wiegand-H. Schrader Priene, 1904, 161ff S. Reinach, RA 10, 1907, 166f.[1],10f.) und die bekannte ital. Terrakotte der auf dem Schwein reitenden Dea impudica (Cook a.O. Abb.79) zeigen, findet sich von der ägäisch-anatolischen Welt bis zum Nildelta verbreitet (D.G. Hogarth, JHS 25, 1905, 128f. Picard a.O. 248f ErJb 6, 1938, 100ff Pestalozza a.O. 540). Die personifizierte Vulva (βαυβώ[1], 12f. [2],42f), drastischer Ausdruck der positiven und negativen maternalen Potenz, ist wie ihr Pendant, der verlebendigte Phallos (Bes-Akephalos: Pickard a.O. 250ff.) Symbol der großen lebengebenden Gottheit, von deren ursprünglich zweigeschlechtlicher Natur neben Mise-Mida auch Baubo-Orthobaubo (F.G.Kenyon Greek Papyri in British Museum, 1893, 79) eine Spur bewahrt hat. (de Martino a.O. 72f).
(Dr. Wolfgang Fauth (Göttingen) schrieb für Der Kleine Pauly (Band 1,S. 843-845, dtv, März 1979) diesen Artikel zum Lemma ‘Baubo’. )

▐►Mythic Example of Pareidolia ◄▌
Demeter started to laugh when she began to recognize Baubo’s vulva as a human face. —> Priene-Statuettes
Carl Sagan: hypothesized that as a survival technique, human being are "hard-wired" from birth to identify the human face. This allows people to use only minimal details to recognize faces from a distance and in poor visibility, but can also lead them to interpret random images or patterns of light and shade as being faces.

▐► grapholalia ◄▌
As many are aware, from its early inception to the present day, the Pentecostal movement has incorporated glossolalia, or speaking in tongues, in its worship practices. Much debate has circulated over this practice, and much confusion has resulted from it.
However, in my recent reading of Heaven Below, Grant Wacker’s essential history of Pentecostalism, I have come across a phenomenon he mentions only in passing known as grapholalia, or unintelligible scribbled writing attributed to the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. – Now, if this is writing is to have any merit, or at least the minimal merit due to writings vicariously inspired by the Holy Spirit, one would think that such texts would find themselve on equal footing with the Bible, provided their source could be authenticated by some authority. My only problem is, I can’t seem to find a single visual example of this bizarre phenomenon.
That being said, anyone who can find me an authentic representation of grapholalia will find themselves rewarded by yours truly with a six pack of the alcoholic beverage of his or her choice. If the finder of such a verifiable source happens him or herself to be Pentecostal, I will gladly substitute something caffeinated in the place of debaucherous drink.

▐► Atlantis◄▌
–> Donovan

▐► Diagenesis/Metamorphism & Weathering ◄▌
In geology and oceanography, diagenesis is any chemical, physical, or biological change undergone by a sediment after its initial deposition and during and after its lithification, exclusive of surface alteration (weathering) and metamorphism. These changes happen at relatively low temperatures and pressures and result in changes to the rock’s original mineralogy and texture.
Metamorphism Metamorphism can be defined as the solid state recrystallisation of pre-existing rocks due to changes in heat and/or pressure and/or introduction of fluids i.e without melting. There will be mineralogical, chemical and crystallographic changes.

▐► stoneage archaelogy ◄▌ [_basics_]
Stone Age: see Paleolithic period; Mesolithic period; Neolithic period.
artifact 1. an object made by a human beeing, typically one of cultural or historical interest 2. something observed in a scientific observation or experiment that is not naturally present but occurs as a result of the preparative or investigative procedure. DERIVATES: artefactual [NODE]
artefact or artifact [en.wikipedia]: In British usage, artefact is the main spelling and artifact a minor variant; however, some speakers claim to write artefact to mean “a product of artisanry” but artifact when the meaning is “a flaw in experimental results caused by the experiment itself”. In American English, artifact is the usual spelling, although it is regarded as nonstandard by some U.S. authorities. Canadians prefer artifact and Australians artefact, according to their respective dictionaries.
Cultural artifact, a man-made object which gives information about the culture of its creator and users
A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made of stone. Although stone-tool-dependent cultures exist even today, most stone tools are associated with prehistoric societies that no longer exist.
The study of stone tools is often called lithic analysis by archaeologists. Stone tools may be made of chipped stone or ground stone. A person who makes chipped stone implements is called a flintknapper. In addition to tools, many minerals were used to make arrow heads and spear points.
Stone toolChipped stone tools are made from cryptocrystalline materials such as chert, radiolarite, chalcedony or obsidian via a process known as lithic reduction. One simple form of reduction is to strike stone flakes from a nucleus (core) of material using a hammerstone or similar hard hammer fabricator. If the goal of the reduction strategy is to produce flakes, the remnant lithic core may be discarded once it has become too small to use. In some strategies, however, a flintknapper reduces the core to a rough unifacial or bifacial preform, which is further reduced using soft hammer flaking techniques or by pressure flaking the edges. More complex forms of reduction include the production of highly standardized blades, which can then be fashioned into a variety of tools such as scrapers, knives, sickles and microliths. In general terms, chipped stone tools are nearly ubiquitous in all pre-metal-using societies because they are easily manufactured, the tool stone is usually plentiful, and they are easy to transport and sharpen.
stoneware is a category of clay and a type of ceramic distinguished primarily by its firing and maturation temperature (from about 1200°C to 1315 °C). In essence, it is man-made stone. One widely recognized definition is from the Combined Nomenclature of the European Communities which states, "Stoneware, which, though dense, impermeable and hard enough to resist scratching by a steel point, differs from porcelain because it is more opaque, and normally only partially vitrified. It may be vitreous or semi-vitreous. It is usually coloured grey or brownish because of impurities in the clay used for its manufacture, and is normally glazed".
In contrast, earthenware is fired at lower temperatures and is not impervious to liquids. Porcelain, which some consider to be a type of stoneware was first produced in China, is distinguished as being whiter than stoneware and always vitreous. Kaolin, or China Clay, which occurs in various parts of the world, has a lower content of impurities than many other clays. It is also fired to a vitreous state, transforming the constituent silica into glass. Some porcelain bodies are translucent after firing. Firing a piece of pottery to too high a temperature will result in warping or melting. Vitreous clay bodies can be made at different temperatures ranges, but they are typically fired in the stoneware/porcelain range. Fired stoneware absorbs up to 5% water, porcelain 0%, and earthenware up to 10%. Earthenware, when moist, is typically not freeze resistant.
A Chinese stoneware vase from the Song Dynasty, 11th century.Clay refers to group of minerals that generally exhibit plasticity when mixed with water, and which chemically primarily consist of alumina and silica. Potters refer to combinations of clays mixed with other materials as clay bodies. Different kinds of clay bodies are created by mixing additives, such as feldspar, grog, quartz, flint, many other minerals are used and these can include spodumene, wollastonite to modify clays. Clay bodies can thereby be formulated to fire at a range of temperatures. Darker clays often contain iron and other metal oxide impurities. The clay used for porcelain and white stoneware clay bodies contain very little of these impurities.
Glaze may be applied to stoneware pottery before a second firing at a different temperature, or a glaze may be applied before a single, raw firing. Salt-glazed stoneware became the dominant houseware of nineteenth century America.
————————————–
vitrify convert (something) into glass or a glasslike substance, typically by exposure to heat ORIGIN from French vitrifier and Latin vitrum = ‘glass’ DERIVATES vitrifaction, vitrifiable, vitrification
vitriform adj. having the form or appearance of glass
vitreous like glass in appearance or physical properties
vitrescent capable of or susceptible of being turned into glass
pyrometallurgy the branch of science and technology with the use of high temperatures to extract and purify metals
pyrolysisnoun decomposition brought about by high temperatures –> pyrolytic
pyrolyse (US pyrolyze) verb Chemistry make or become decomposed by through heating to high temperature ORIGIN: 1920s: from pyrolysis on the pattern of analysis
pyrotechny historical the use of fire in alchemy
blast furnace Hochofen smelting furnace Schmelzofen
iron pyrites noun see
pyrites a shiny yellow mineral consisting of iron disulphide and typically occurring as intersecting cubic crystals. See also copper pyrites
Lasur: varnish, (coloured) glaze
Calcium Oxide Calcination of limestone is one of the first chemical reactions discovered by man and was known in prehistory.
As hydrated or slaked lime, Ca(OH)2 (mineral name: portlandite), it is used in mortar and plaster to increase the rate of hardening. Hydrated lime is very simple to make as lime is a basic anhydride and reacts vigorously with water. Lime is also used in glass production and its ability to react with silicates is also used in modern metal production (steel, magnesium, aluminium and other non-ferrous metals) industries to remove impurities as slag.
Neolithic (wikipedia)

▐► linguistics ◄▌
☇= lightning, flash; ☈ = thunderstorm
“lightning struck the magick purse” (JDM)
Stylings
hafted hand-chisel KNIFE fired & glazed »Martial Stoneware«
impregnable stoneware artifact ►hilted hammer/dagger◄ & ►hafted knife/saw◄ (Sept. 14th)
adamant adjective: refusing to be persuaded or to change one’s mind, noun: archaic a legendary rock or mineral to which many, often contradictory, properties were attributed, formerly associated with diamond or lodestone – DERIVATES adamance, adamancy, adamantly ORIGIN greek adamas ‘untameable, invincible’ (later used to denote the hardest metal or stone, hence diamond). The phrase to be adamant dates from the 1930s, although adjectival use had been implied in such collocations as ‘an adamant heart’ since the 16th century.
adamantine poetic/literary unbreakable
lodestone a piece of magnetite or other magnetized mineral, able to be used as magnet —> biomagnetism
scale each of the small, thin horny or bony plates protecting the skin of fish and reptiles, typically overlapping one another 3. [mass noun] a flaky deposit, in particular: a white deposit formed in a kettle, boiler etc. by the evaporation of water containing lime, tartar formed on teeth, a coating formed on heated metal
verb: 1. remove scales or scales from 2. form scales (especially of the skin
scale armour armour consisting of small overlapping plates of metal, leather or horn
backbord(s) on the port side steuerbord(s) to starboard
cradle (from German Kratte = ‘basket’) figurative be the place of origin of, e.g. the acropolis was a cradle hill.
impregnable adj. (of a fortified position) unable to be captured or broken into ORIGIN: lt. prehendere ‘take’
impregnate verb 1. (usu. be impregnated with) soak or saturate with a substance 2. make pregnant (lt. impregnare)
missile an object which is forcibly propelled at a target, either by hand or from a mechanical weapon; a weapon that is self-propelled or directed by remote control, carrying conventional or nuclear explosive
missilery the study of the use and characteristics of missiles 2 missiles collectively
dart a small pointed missile that can be thrown or fired, verb: move or run somewhere suddenly or rapidly, archaic: throw (a missile); ORIGIN from Old French accusative of darz, dars, from a West Germanic word meaning ‘spear, lance’
shuttle short for space shuttle ORIGIN old english scytel ‘dart,missile’, of Germanic origin; compare with Old Norse scutill ‘harpoon‘; related to ‘shoot’. [NODE]
harpoon (16th Oct,01:16) a barbed spear-like missile attached to a long rope or thrown by hand or fired from gun, used for catching whales and other large sea creatures ORIGIN early 17th cent (denoting barbed dart or spear); from French harpon, from harpe ‘dog’s claw,clamp’ via Latin from Greek harpê = ‘sickle’
keel the lengthwise timber or steel structure along the base of a ship, in some vessels extended downwards as a blade or ridge to increase stability ORIGIN: from old Norse kjǫlr
verb: turn over on its side; capside –> keeled (adjective)
sheath knife
knife Definition: cutter; Synonyms: bait chopper, bayonet, blade, bolo, cutlass, cutter, cutting edge, dagger, edge, frog sticker, lance, lancet, machete, ooloo, point, ripper, sabre, scalpel, scimitar, scythe, shank, shiv, sickle, skewer, skiver, steel, stiletto, switchblade, sword, tickler, ulul
scalpel a knife with a small sharp, sometimes detachable blade, as used by surgeon ORIGIN Latin scalpellum, diminutive of scalprum form scalpere ‘to scratch’
edge (lt. acies); edge-tool: a handworked or machine-operated cutting tool
haft the handle of a knife, axe or spear
verb haft [with obj.] [often as adj. hafteed] provide (a blade, axe head or spearhead) with a haft.
tool devic or implement, especially one held in hand, used to carry out a particular function
tool steel hard steel of a quality used for making cutting tools
insignia (en.wikipedia) is a symbol or token of personal power, status or office, or of an official body of government or jurisdiction. Insignia are especially used as an emblem of a specific or general authority.
Scythia an ancient region of SE Europe and Asia. The Scythian Empire which existed between the 8th and 2nd centuries BC, was centered on the northern shores of the Black Sea and extended from southern Russia to the borders of Persia. [NODE p.1675]
Hellenic adjective Greek, (Archaeology) relating to or denoting Iron Age and Classical Greek culture (between Helladic and Hellenistic) [NODE p.853]
Ares war god, roman equivalent Mars
Mars 1. (mythology) most important Roman god after Jupiter (cf. the month March and the city Marseille)
2. Astronomy a small reddish (iron rich minerals covering the surface) planet which is the fourth in order from the sun. Has two satellites: Phobos & Deimos.
martial of or appropriate to war, warlike Martian a hypothetical or fictional inhabitant of Mars
»oh the iron will and the iron hand
well alas we’ve seen it all before
knights in armour, days for yore
the same old fears and the same old crimes
we haven’t changed since ancient times
«
Iron Hand (Dire Straits Lyrics)
Six Blade Knife: hammer/baubón/knife/pestle/saw/boat

all-purpose – synomyma: versatile, protean, mercurial …, fickle changing frequently
mercurial 1. (of a person) subject to sudden or unpredictable changes of mood or mind (this sense dates from the mid 17th cent. 2.) containing the element mercury [NODE]
Odin —>Mercury (eloquence,trading,thieving,skill,herald and messenger of the gods –> Hermes Trismegistus: a legendary figure regarded by Neoplatonists and others as the author of certain works on astrology, magic and alchemy ORIGIN: ‘thrice-greatest-Hermes, in reference to Thoth, identified with Hermes.
polyfaceted
facet one side of something manysided, especially of a cut gem
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Timetable
Sept 5th 2007, uploaded in two colors (10 views til Sept. 10th–>deleted).
Sept 11th 2007, 03:05 uploaded a second time, now with 103.317 colours, after two hours of lucubrations with Photoshop’s Lasso-Tool ….
Sept 14th 2007,10h: Telephone call from brother Chr. Wants to do me a favour offering to flog the antique via his ebay-account for an amount of 200 €. I refused, arguing that it was at least 3000 years old.

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Northrop P-61C Black Widow
dating tips for men

Image by Chris Devers
Compare & contrast:

Northrop P-61C Black widow:
* Front view
* Above view

Star Wars ARC-170 Fighter:
* Official page
* Wikia
* Wikipedia
* Toy review

I put it to you that they’re the SAME THING.

* twin engines
* double-cockpit in front
* gunner’s cockpit in back
* broad wing coming out from the middle

• • • • •

See more photos of this, and the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum: Steven F. Udvar-Hazy | Northrop P-61C Black Widow:

The P-61 Black Widow was the first U.S. aircraft designed to locate and destroy enemy aircraft at night and in bad weather, a feat made possible by the use of on-board radar. The prototype first flew in 1942. P-61 combat operations began just after D-Day, June 6, 1944, when Black Widows flew deep into German airspace, bombing and strafing trains and road traffic. Operations in the Pacific began at about the same time. By the end of World War II, Black Widows had seen combat in every theater and had destroyed 127 enemy aircraft and 18 German V-1 buzz bombs.

The Museum’s Black Widow, a P-61C-1-NO, was delivered to the Army Air Forces in July 1945. It participated in cold-weather tests, high-altitude drop tests, and in the National Thunderstorm Project, for which the top turret was removed to make room for thunderstorm monitoring equipment.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Northrop Aircraft Inc.

Date:
1943

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 450 x 1500cm, 10637kg, 2000cm (14ft 9 3/16in. x 49ft 2 9/16in., 23450.3lb., 65ft 7 3/8in.)

Long Description:
The P-61 Black Widow was the first United States aircraft designed from the start to find and destroy other aircraft at night and in bad weather. It served in combat for only the final year of World War II but flew in the European, Mediterranean, Pacific, and China-Burma-India theaters. Black Widow crews destroyed 127 enemy aircraft and 18 robot V-1 buzz bombs.

Jack Northrop’s big fighter was born during the dark days of the Battle of Britain and the London Blitz in 1940. British successes against German daylight bombers forced the Luftwaffe (German Air Force) to shift to night bombing. By the time Royal Air Force (RAF) Spitfires could launch, climb out, and then try to intercept these raids, the bombers crews had usually dropped their loads and turned for home. An aircraft was needed to patrol the skies over England for up to seven hours during the night, and then follow radar vectors to attack German aircraft before they reached their target. U.S. Army Air Corps officers noted this requirement and decided that America must have a night fighter if and when it entered the war.

The Army awarded a contract to Northrop on January 30, 1941. The resulting design featured twin tail booms and rudders for stability when the aircraft closed in behind an intruder. It was a large aircraft with a big fuel load and two powerful engines. Armament evolved into four 20 mm cannons mounted in the belly firing forward and a powered, remote-controlled turret on top of the center fuselage equipped with four .50 cal. machine guns. The three-man crew consisted of the pilot, a gunner seated behind him, and a radar observer/gunner at the rear behind the gun turret. Only the pilot could fire the cannons but any of the three could operate the machine guns.

Simultaneously, work was proceeding, at a laboratory run by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, to develop the airborne radar set. The Army tested an early design in a Douglas B-18 in 1941. The much-improved SCR-520 set was ready by early 1942. Meanwhile, Army enthusiasm for the XP-61 produced another contract on March 10, 1941, for 13 service-test YP-61s. Even before these airplanes flew, Northrop received orders for 410 production machines! Northrop test pilot Vance Breeze flew the aircraft on May 26, 1942. Although the Black Widow was nearly as large as a medium bomber, it was a true fighter. The only prohibited flight maneuvers were outside loops, sustained inverted flight, and deliberate spins.

As Northrop advanced the design toward production, supply problems arose and modifications became necessary. The 4-gun top turret was the same type fitted to the top forward position on the Boeing B-29 Superfortress (see NASM collection) and that bomber had production priority over the P-61. As a result, several hundred P-61s did not have this turret. Those that did experienced buffeting when the turret was traversed from side to side and a fix took time. By October 1943, the first P-61s were coming off the line. Training started immediately, and the first night fighters arrived in the European Theater by March 1944. Combat operations began just after D-Day (June 6) and the Black Widows quickly departed from their original role as defensive interceptors and became aggressors. They flew deep into German airspace, bombing and strafing trains and road traffic and making travel difficult for the enemy by day and at night.

P-61s arrived in the Pacific Theater at about the same time as the European Black Widows. For years, the Japanese had operated lone bombers over Allied targets at night and now U. S. fighters could locate and attack them. However, on June 30, 1944, a Mitsubishi BETTY (see NASM collection) became the first P-61 kill in the Pacific. Soon, Black Widows controlled the night skies. On the night of August 14-15, a P-61 named "Lady in the Dark" by her crew encountered an intruding Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa (Peregrine Falcon) OSCAR (see NASM collection) and eventually forced it into the sea without firing a shot. Although the war was officially over, no one was sure that all of the Japanese had heard the message and stopped fighting. The American night fighters flew again the next night and "Lady in the Dark" again found a target. It was a Nakajima Ki-44 Shoki (Demon) TOJO and the fighters maneuvered wildly as they attempted to gain an advantage. The P-61 crew lost and reacquired the Ki-44 several times then finally lost it for good and returned to base. The next day ground troops found the wrecked TOJO. In the darkness, Lady in the Dark’s crew had forced the Japanese pilot to fly into the ground, again without firing a shot.

With the war over, the Army cancelled further production. Northrop had built 706 aircraft including 36 with a highly modified center fuselage. These F-15As (later redesignated RF-61C) mounted a number of cameras in the nose and proved able reconnaissance platforms. Many of these airplanes participated in the first good aerial photographic survey of the Pacific islands. A few, plus some special purpose P-61s, stayed in active service until 1950.

NASM’s Black Widow is a P-61C-1-NO, U.S. Army Air Forces serial number 43-8330. Northrop delivered it to the Army on July 28, 1945. By October 18, this P-61 was flying at Ladd Field, Alaska, in cold weather tests and it remained there until March 30, 1946. This airplane later moved to Pinecastle Air Force Base, Florida, for participation in the National Thunderstorm Project. The project’s goal was to learn more about thunderstorms and to use this knowledge to better protect civil and military airplanes that operated near them. The U. S. Weather Bureau and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) undertook the study with cooperation from the Army Air Forces and Navy. With its radar and particular flight characteristics, the P-61 was capable of finding the most turbulent regions of a storm, penetrating them, and returning crew and instruments intact for detailed study.

Pinecastle personnel removed the guns and turret from 43-8330 in July 1946 to make room for new equipment. In September, the aircraft moved to Clinton County Army Air Base, Ohio, where it remained until January 1948. The Air Force then assigned the aircraft to the Flight Test Division at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. After declaring the airplane surplus in 1950, the Air Force stored it at Park Ridge, Illinois, on October 3 along with important aircraft destined for the National Air Museum.

But 43-8830 was not done flying. NACA asked the Smithsonian to lend them the aircraft for use in another special program. The committee wanted to investigate how aerodynamic shapes behaved when dropped from high altitude. The Black Widow arrived at the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, Naval Air Station Moffett Field, California, on February 14, 1951. NACA returned the aircraft and delivered it to the Smithsonian at Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland, on August 10, 1954. When the engines shut down for the last time, this P-61 had accumulated only 530 total flight hours. Smithsonian personnel trucked it to the Paul Garber Facility in Suitland, Maryland. In 2006, the aircraft was preserved and assembled at the Udvar-Hazy Center. The three different paint schemes from its past service life have been revealed by carefully removing individual layers of paint.

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: P-40 Warhawk, SR-71 Blackbird, Naval Aircraft Factory N3N seaplane, Space Shuttle Enterprise
dating tips for men

Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Curtiss P-40E Warhawk (Kittyhawk IA):

Whether known as the Warhawk, Tomahawk, or Kittyhawk, the Curtiss P-40 proved to be a successful, versatile fighter during the first half of World War II. The shark-mouthed Tomahawks that Gen. Claire Chennault’s "Flying Tigers" flew in China against the Japanese remain among the most popular airplanes of the war. P-40E pilot Lt. Boyd D. Wagner became the first American ace of World War II when he shot down six Japanese aircraft in the Philippines in mid-December 1941.

Curtiss-Wright built this airplane as Model 87-A3 and delivered it to Canada as a Kittyhawk I in 1941. It served until 1946 in No. 111 Squadron, Royal Canadian Air Force. U.S. Air Force personnel at Andrews Air Force Base restored it in 1975 to represent an aircraft of the 75th Fighter Squadron, 23rd Fighter Group, 14th Air Force.

Donated by the Exchange Club in Memory of Kellis Forbes.

Manufacturer:
Curtiss Aircraft Company

Date:
1939

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 330 x 970cm, 2686kg, 1140cm (10ft 9 15/16in. x 31ft 9 7/8in., 5921.6lb., 37ft 4 13/16in.)

Materials:
All-metal, semi-monocoque

Physical Description:
Single engine, single seat, fighter aircraft.

• • • • •

See more photos of this, and the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird:

No reconnaissance aircraft in history has operated globally in more hostile airspace or with such complete impunity than the SR-71, the world’s fastest jet-propelled aircraft. The Blackbird’s performance and operational achievements placed it at the pinnacle of aviation technology developments during the Cold War.

This Blackbird accrued about 2,800 hours of flight time during 24 years of active service with the U.S. Air Force. On its last flight, March 6, 1990, Lt. Col. Ed Yielding and Lt. Col. Joseph Vida set a speed record by flying from Los Angeles to Washington, D.C., in 1 hour, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging 3,418 kilometers (2,124 miles) per hour. At the flight’s conclusion, they landed at Washington-Dulles International Airport and turned the airplane over to the Smithsonian.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation

Designer:
Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson

Date:
1964

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 55ft 7in. x 107ft 5in., 169998.5lb. (5.638m x 16.942m x 32.741m, 77110.8kg)
Other: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 107ft 5in. x 55ft 7in. (5.638m x 32.741m x 16.942m)

Materials:
Titanium

Physical Description:
Twin-engine, two-seat, supersonic strategic reconnaissance aircraft; airframe constructed largley of titanium and its alloys; vertical tail fins are constructed of a composite (laminated plastic-type material) to reduce radar cross-section; Pratt and Whitney J58 (JT11D-20B) turbojet engines feature large inlet shock cones.

• • • • •

Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Naval Aircraft Factory N3N:

In 1934 the Naval Aircraft Factory in Philadelphia was tasked to manufacture a new primary trainer for the U.S. Navy. Following successful tests, this little biplane trainer was built in both land and seaplane versions. The Navy initially ordered 179 N3N-1 models, and the factory began producing more than 800 N3N-3 models in 1938. U.S. Navy primary flight training schools used N3Ns extensively throughout World War II. A few of the seaplane version were retained for primary training at the U.S. Naval Academy. In 1961 they became the last biplanes retired from U.S. military service.

This N3N-3 was transferred from Cherry Point to Annapolis in 1946, where it served as a seaplane trainer. It was restored and displayed at the Naval Academy Museum before being transferred here.

Transferred from the United States Navy

Manufacturer:
Naval Aircraft Factory

Date:
1941

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 10ft 9 15/16in. x 25ft 7 1/16in. x 34ft 1 7/16in., 2090lb. (330 x 780 x 1040cm, 948kg)

Materials:
bolted steel-tube fuselage construction with removable side panels wings, also constructed internally of all metal, covered with fabric like the fuselage and tail.

Physical Description:
Bright yellow bi-plane, hand crank start. Cockpit instrumentation consists of an altimeter, tachometer, airspeed indicator, compass, turn and bank indicator, and a combination fuel and oil temperature and pressure gauge, floats.

• • • • •

See more photos of this, and the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Space Shuttle Enterprise:

Manufacturer:
Rockwell International Corporation

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 57 ft. tall x 122 ft. long x 78 ft. wing span, 150,000 lb.
(1737.36 x 3718.57 x 2377.44cm, 68039.6kg)

Materials:
Aluminum airframe and body with some fiberglass features; payload bay doors are graphite epoxy composite; thermal tiles are simulated (polyurethane foam) except for test samples of actual tiles and thermal blankets.

The first Space Shuttle orbiter, "Enterprise," is a full-scale test vehicle used for flights in the atmosphere and tests on the ground; it is not equipped for spaceflight. Although the airframe and flight control elements are like those of the Shuttles flown in space, this vehicle has no propulsion system and only simulated thermal tiles because these features were not needed for atmospheric and ground tests. "Enterprise" was rolled out at Rockwell International’s assembly facility in Palmdale, California, in 1976. In 1977, it entered service for a nine-month-long approach-and-landing test flight program. Thereafter it was used for vibration tests and fit checks at NASA centers, and it also appeared in the 1983 Paris Air Show and the 1984 World’s Fair in New Orleans. In 1985, NASA transferred "Enterprise" to the Smithsonian Institution’s National Air and Space Museum.

Transferred from National Aeronautics and Space Administration

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