Borinqueneers open doors to peace and security

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Borinqueneers open doors to peace and security
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www.usaraf.army.mil

Borinqueneers Open Doors to Peace and Security
Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa

Story by Master Sgt. Ruby Zarzyczny
Date: 10.23.2009

ENTEBBE, Uganda—"Borinqueneers" from Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa opened the doors to its seventh Counter Terrorism Course for the Ugandan People’s Defense Force, July 30, at the Kasenyi Military Training center.

The four-month course is being taught by "Borinqueneer" Soldiers from the 1/65th Infantry Battalion, Puerto Rico National Guard. According to historical records, the men of the 1/65th IN BN came up with the nickname "Borinqueneer" during a long sea voyager while serving in the Korean War. It is a combination of the words Buccaneers and Boriquen which is the name the Tainos Indians called the island (Puerto Rico) before the arrival of the Spaniards.

This is not the first time the 1/65th IN BN has been deployed to Africa. According to 1/65th IN BN historical documentation, they were deployed during WWII to North Africa in 1943. In 1944, they moved forward from Casablanca, Morocco to Italy and then France to join the 3rd Battalion and defeated Germany’s 34th Infantry Division’s 107th Infantry Regiment.

Sixty-six years later, the 1/65th IN BN is once again deployed to Africa. This time, they are deployed to Camp Lemonnier, Djibouti to support the Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa’s mission to foster regional stability, build security capacity, and forge relationships with our African partner nations.

In July, the 1/65th IN BN open the doors to teach the counter terrorism course for the first time in Africa. During the course the instructors and assistant instructors from the UPDF (soldiers who have graduated from previous courses) will partner to share their knowledge and skills with the UPDF student soldiers to help the UPDF develop counter terrorism practices to increase peace and security in Uganda, said Sgt. 1st Class Heriberto Crespo CJTF-HOA Counter Terrorism Course non-commissioned officer in charge.

Before deploying, most of the instructors received additional training in Puerto Rico to become instructors and some have experience mentoring Afghani soldiers during the unit’s previous deployment to Afghanistan.

"It’s a great experience to be able to mentor the UPDF students by giving them the knowledge I have as an infantryman," said Specialist Jose Alicea, 1st Platoon instructor. "It’s a great feeling knowing you’re able to help someone be more proficient at their job. I’m not only teaching them, I’m also learning from them as I see their progress."

The course is taught using UPDF equipment, supplies and weapons used by the Soldiers to perform their duties. The instructors received additional training on the AK-47 rifle used during the course. Private Kamba Boaz, UPDF soldier and 1st Platoon assistant instructor, works with the instructors and helps keep communication flowing during the classes.

"It’s a very good opportunity for me because I am learning more and have the opportunity to bring my skills to the training," said Pvt. Boaz. "Working with the men from the 1/65th (IN BN) from Puerto Rico is the most wonderful thing. They are good friends. They are real professionals. Through our friendship, we are able to learn more from them and they are able to learn more from us."

Before the students start learning counter terrorism techniques, they will learn basic soldier skills during the first eight weeks of training. Some of the skills include individual movement, map reading, land navigation, first aid, search techniques, improvised explosive devices recognition, HIV prevention and human rights. Once these skills are mastered, the students will progress to squad operations and learn to work as a team.

Each squad is made up of nine soldiers. During this section of the training they will learn to move as a team to maneuver through danger areas and identify details as a group. Supervised by the instructors, the students practice these skills in training scenarios called training lanes. Using the standard operating procedures the students are evaluated to ensure they understand the basic skills before moving to the second phase of the course Military Operation Urbanized Terrain training.

"We train to standards not to time," said Crespo. "We will take as much time as needed until each student performs to standard. We move as fast as the slowest soldier and the training platoons move forward at the same time."

The course is divided up into four platoons of 40 students each having four to five instructors and an assistant instructor. The training is progressing at a steady pace as the UPDF students are fast learners and some have already faced combat in the Congo, said Crespo. Despite the language barriers and slow supply lines the students are motivated to learn.

"Both students and instructors face the challenge of English as a second language," said Crespo. "We all understand English, but we add different accents to the language. After about three weeks, we were able to understand each others accents and now we are sharing languages. Many of the students are learning our language, Spanish."

The instructors anticipate the MOUT training to start sometime in late October. The UPDF leaders have asked the CJTF-HOA to provide the students with realistic training. The 1/65th instructors have created a MOUT site to resemble an urban environment similar to a Ugandan village.

"Terrorist don’t fight in the open with soldiers," said Crespo. "They attack cities, hospitals, churches, schools, urban areas with innocent people. That’s where terrorists attack. We will build a MOUT site resembling a city in Uganda and train the UPDF students to detect and respond to terrorist attacks."

These instructors from the 1/65th are the tip of the spear for their unit. The course is expected to finish later this year and will end with a graduation ceremony attended by UPDF and CJTF-HOA military leaders. Successful completion of this course will open doors for similar training opportunities for the 1/65th IN BN with CJTF-HOA’s African partners throughout the Horn of Africa, said Sergeant Crespo.

www.usaraf.army.mil

Photo Caption:

ENTEBBE, Uganda — Staff Sgt. Douglas Lamberty, 1/65th Infantry Battalion 2nd Platoon instructor helps a Ugandan People?s Defense Force student team leader give direction to his team while manuvering through dangerous terrain a training scenario at the Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa Counter Terrorism Course Sept. 23, 2009. (Photo/Released Master Sgt. Ruby Zarzyczny)

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Jaguar E-Type 4-2 in front of Samuel’s Jaguar Motors LTD
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Image by Chris Devers
Quoting from Wikipedia: Jaguar E-Type:

• • • • •

The Jaguar E-Type (UK) or XK-E (US) is a British automobile manufactured by Jaguar between 1961 and 1974. Its combination of good looks, high performance, and competitive pricing established the marque as an icon of 1960s motoring. A great success for Jaguar, over seventy thousand E-Types were sold during its lifespan.

In March 2008, the Jaguar E-Type ranked first in Daily Telegraph list of the "100 most beautiful cars" of all time.[2] In 2004, Sports Car International magazine placed the E-Type at number one on their list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s.

Contents

1 Overview
2 Concept versions
•• 2.1 E1A (1957)
•• 2.2 E2A (1960)
3 Production versions
•• 3.1 Series 1 (1961-1968)
•• 3.2 Series 2 (1969-1971)
•• 3.3 Series 3 (1971-1975)
4 Limited edtions
•• 4.1 Low Drag Coupé (1962)
•• 4.2 Lightweight E-Type (1963-1964)
5 Motor Sport
6 See also
7 References
8 External links

Overview

The E-Type was initially designed and shown to the public as a grand tourer in two-seater coupé form (FHC or Fixed Head Coupé) and as convertible (OTS or Open Two Seater). The 2+2 version with a lengthened wheelbase was released several years later.

On its release Enzo Ferrari called it "The most beautiful car ever made".

The model was made in three distinct versions which are now generally referred to as "Series 1", "Series 2" and "Series 3". A transitional series between Series 1 and Series 2 is known unofficially as "Series 1½".

In addition, several limited-edition variants were produced:

• The "’Lightweight’ E-Type" which was apparently intended as a sort of follow-up to the D-Type. Jaguar planned to produce 18 units but ultimately only a dozen were reportedly built. Of those, one is known to have been destroyed and two others have been converted to coupé form. These are exceedingly rare and sought after by collectors.
• The "Low Drag Coupé" was a one-off technical exercise which was ultimately sold to a Jaguar racing driver. It is presently believed to be part of the private collection of the current Viscount Cowdray.

Concept versions

E1A (1957)

After their success at LeMans 24 hr through the 1950s Jaguars defunct racing department were given the brief to use D-Type style construction to build a road going sports car, replacing the XK150.

It is suspected that the first prototype (E1A) was given the code based on: (E): The proposed production name E-Type (1): First Prototype (A): Aluminium construction (Production models used steel bodies)

The car featured a monocoque design, Jaguar’s fully independent rear suspension and the well proved "XK" engine.

The car was used solely for factory testings and was never formally released to the public. The car was eventually scrapped by the factory

E2A (1960)

Jaguar’s second E-Type concept was E2A which unlike E1A was constructed from a steel chassis and used a aluminium body. This car was completed as a race car as it was thought by Jaguar at the time it would provide a better testing ground.

E2A used a 3 litre version of the XK engine with a Lucas fuel injection system.

After retiring from the LeMans 24 hr the car was shipped to America to be used for racing by Jaguar privateer Briggs Cunningham.

In 1961 the car returned to Jaguar in England to be used as a testing mule.

Ownership of E2A passed to Roger Woodley (Jaguars customer competition car manager) who took possession on the basis the car not be used for racing. E2A had been scheduled to be scrapped.

Roger’s wife Penny Griffiths owned E2A until 2008 when it was offered for sale at Bonham’s Quail Auction. Sale price was US.5 million

Production versions

Series 1 (1961-1968)

Series I

• Production
1961–1968[3] [4]

Body style(s)
2-door coupe
2-door 2+2 coupe
2-door convertible

Engine(s)
3.8 L XK I6
4.2 L XK I6

Wheelbase
96.0 in (2438 mm) (FHC / OTS)
105.0 in (2667 mm) (2+2) [5]

• Length
175.3125 in (4453 mm) (FHC / OTS)
184.4375 in (4685 mm) (2+2) [5]

• Width
65.25 in (1657 mm) (all) [5]

• Height
48.125 in (1222 mm) (FHC)
50.125 in (1273 mm) (2+2)
46.5 in (1181 mm) (OTS)[5]

Curb weight
2,900 lb (1,315 kg) (FHC)
2,770 lb (1,256 kg) (OTS)
3,090 lb (1,402 kg) (2+2) [6]

• Fuel capacity
63.64 L (16.8 US gal; 14.0 imp gal)[5]

The Series 1 was introduced, initially for export only, in March 1961. The domestic market launch came four months later in July 1961.[7] The cars at this time used the triple SU carburetted 3.8 litre 6-cylinder Jaguar XK6 engine from the XK150S. The first 500 cars built had flat floors and external hood (bonnet) latches. These cars are rare and more valuable. After that, the floors were dished to provide more leg room and the twin hood latches moved to inside the car. The 3.8 litre engine was increased to 4.2 litres in October 1964.[7]

All E-Types featured independent coil spring rear suspension with torsion bar front ends, and four wheel disc brakes, in-board at the rear, all were power-assisted. Jaguar was one of the first auto manufacturers to equip cars with disc brakes as standard from the XK150 in 1958. The Series 1 can be recognised by glass covered headlights (up to 1967), small "mouth" opening at the front, signal lights and tail-lights above bumpers and exhaust tips under the licence plate in the rear.

3.8 litre cars have leather-upholstered bucket seats, an aluminium-trimmed centre instrument panel and console (changed to vinyl and leather in 1963), and a Moss 4-speed gearbox that lacks synchromesh for 1st gear ("Moss box"). 4.2 litre cars have more comfortable seats, improved brakes and electrical systems, and an all-synchromesh 4-speed gearbox. 4.2 litre cars also have a badge on the boot proclaiming "Jaguar 4.2 Litre E-Type" (3.8 cars have a simple "Jaguar" badge). Optional extras included chrome spoked wheels and a detachable hard top for the OTS.

An original E-Type hard top is very rare, and finding one intact with all the chrome, not to mention original paint in decent condition, is rather difficult. For those who want a hardtop and aren’t fussy over whether or not it is an original from Jaguar, several third parties have recreated the hardtop to almost exact specifications. The cost ranges anywhere from double to triple the cost of a canvas/vinyl soft top.

A 2+2 version of the coupé was added in 1966. The 2+2 offered the option of an automatic transmission. The body is 9 in (229 mm) longer and the roof angles are different with a more vertical windscreen. The roadster remained a strict two-seater.

There was a transitional series of cars built in 1967-68, unofficially called "Series 1½", which are externally similar to Series 1 cars. Due to American pressure the new features were open headlights, different switches, and some de-tuning (with a downgrade of twin Zenith-Stromberg carbs from the original triple SU carbs) for US models. Some Series 1½ cars also have twin cooling fans and adjustable seat backs. Series 2 features were gradually introduced into the Series 1, creating the unofficial Series 1½ cars, but always with the Series 1 body style.

Less widely known, there was also right at the end of Series 1 production and prior to the transitional "Series 1½" referred to above, a very small number of Series 1 cars produced with open headlights.[8] These are sometimes referred to as "Series 1¼" cars.[9] Production dates on these machines vary but in right hand drive form production has been verified as late as March 1968.[10] It is thought that the low number of these cars produced relative to the other Series make them amongst the rarest of all production E Types.

An open 3.8 litre car, actually the first such production car to be completed, was tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1961 and had a top speed of 149.1 mph (240.0 km/h) and could accelerate from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 7.1 seconds. A fuel consumption of 21.3 miles per imperial gallon (13.3 L/100 km; 17.7 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost £2097 including taxes.[11]

Production numbers from Graham[12]:

• 15,490 3.8s
• 17,320 4.2s
• 10,930 2+2s

Production numbers from xkedata.com[13]: [omitted -- Flickr doesn't allow tables]

Series 2 (1969-1971)

Series II

• Production
1969–1971[3] [4]

Body style(s)
2-door coupe
2-door 2+2 coupe
2-door convertible

Engine(s)
4.2 L XK I6

Curb weight
3,018 lb (1,369 kg) (FHC)
2,750 lb (1,247 kg) (OTS)
3,090 lb (1,402 kg) (2+2) [6]

Open headlights without glass covers, a wrap-around rear bumper, re-positioned and larger front indicators and taillights below the bumpers, better cooling aided by an enlarged "mouth" and twin electric fans, and uprated brakes are hallmarks of Series 2 cars. De-tuned in US, but still with triple SUs in the UK, the engine is easily identified visually by the change from smooth polished cam covers to a more industrial ‘ribbed’ appearance. Late Series 1½ cars also had ribbed cam covers. The interior and dashboard were also redesigned, with rocker switches that met U.S health and safety regulations being substituted for toggle switches. The dashboard switches also lost their symmetrical layout. New seats were fitted, which purists claim lacked the style of the originals but were certainly more comfortable. Air conditioning and power steering were available as factory options.

Production according to Graham[12] is 13,490 of all types.

Series 2 production numbers from xkedata.com[13]: [omitted -- Flickr doesn't allow tables]

Official delivery numbers by market and year are listed in Porter[3] but no summary totals are given.

Series 3 (1971-1975)

Series III

• Production
1971–1975

Body style(s)
2-door 2+2 coupe
2-door convertible

Engine(s)
5.3 L Jaguar V12

Wheelbase
105 in (2667 mm) (both)[6]

• Length
184.4 in (4684 mm) (2+2)
184.5 in (4686 mm) (OTS)[6]

• Width
66.0 in (1676 mm) (2+2)
66.1 in (1679 mm) (OTS)[6]

• Height
48.9 in (1242 mm) (2+2)
48.1 in (1222 mm) (OTS)[6]

Curb weight
3,361 lb (1,525 kg) (2+2)
3,380 lb (1,533 kg) (OTS)[6]

• Fuel capacity
82 L (21.7 US gal; 18.0 imp gal)[14]

A new 5.3 L 12-cylinder Jaguar V12 engine was introduced, with uprated brakes and standard power steering. The short wheelbase FHC body style was discontinued and the V12 was available only as a convertible and 2+2 coupé. The convertible used the longer-wheelbase 2+2 floorplan. It is easily identifiable by the large cross-slatted front grille, flared wheel arches and a badge on the rear that proclaims it to be a V12. There were also a very limited number of 4.2 litre six-cylinder Series 3 E-Types built. These were featured in the initial sales literature. It is believed these are the rarest of all E-Types of any remaining.

In 2008 a British classic car enthusiast assembled what is surely the last ever E-Type from parts bought from the end-of-production surplus in 1974.[15]

Graham[12] lists production at 15,290.

Series 3 production numbers from xkedata.com[13]: [omitted -- Flickr doesn't allow tables]

Limited edtions

Two limited production E-Type variants were made as test beds, the Low Drag Coupe and Lightweight E-Type, both of which were raced:

Low Drag Coupé (1962)

Shortly after the introduction of the E-Type, Jaguar management wanted to investigate the possibility of building a car more in the spirit of the D-Type racer from which elements of the E-Type’s styling and design were derived. One car was built to test the concept designed as a coupé as its monocoque design could only be made rigid enough for racing by using the "stressed skin" principle. Previous Jaguar racers were built as open-top cars because they were based on ladder frame designs with independent chassis and bodies. Unlike the steel production E-Types the LDC used lightweight aluminium. Sayer retained the original tub with lighter outer panels riveted and glued to it. The front steel sub frame remained intact, the windshield was given a more pronounced slope and the rear hatch welded shut. Rear brake cooling ducts appeared next to the rear windows,and the interior trim was discarded, with only insulation around the transmission tunnel. With the exception of the windscreen, all cockpit glass was plexi. A tuned version of Jaguar’s 3.8 litre engine with a wide angle cylinder-head design tested on the D-Type racers was used. Air management became a major problem and, although much sexier looking and certainly faster than a production E-Type, the car was never competitive: the faster it went, the more it wanted to do what its design dictated: take off.

The one and only test bed car was completed in summer of 1962 but was sold a year later to Jaguar racing driver Dick Protheroe who raced it extensively and eventually sold it. Since then it has passed through the hands of several collectors on both sides of the Atlantic and now is believed to reside in the private collection of the current Viscount Cowdray.

Lightweight E-Type (1963-1964)

In some ways, this was an evolution of the Low Drag Coupé. It made extensive use of aluminium alloy in the body panels and other components. However, with at least one exception, it remained an open-top car in the spirit of the D-Type to which this car is a more direct successor than the production E-Type which is more of a GT than a sports car. The cars used a tuned version of the production 3.8 litre Jaguar engine with 300 bhp (224 kW) output rather than the 265 bhp (198 kW) produced by the "ordinary" version. At least one car is known to have been fitted with fuel-injection.

The cars were entered in various races but, unlike the C-Type and D-Type racing cars, they did not win at Le Mans or Sebring.

Motor Sport

Bob Jane won the 1963 Australian GT Championship at the wheel of an E-Type.

The Jaguar E-Type was very successful in SCCA Production sports car racing with Group44 and Bob Tullius taking the B-Production championship with a Series-3 V12 racer in 1975. A few years later, Gran-Turismo Jaguar from Cleveland Ohio campaigned a 4.2 L 6 cylinder FHC racer in SCCA production series and in 1980, won the National Championship in the SCCA C-Production Class defeating a fully funded factory Nissan Z-car team with Paul Newman.

See also

Jaguar XK150 – predecessor to the E-Type
Jaguar XJS – successor to the E-Type
Jaguar XK8 – The E-Type’s current and spiritual successor
Guyson E12 – a rebodied series III built by William Towns

References

^ Loughborough graduate and designer of E Type Jaguar honoured
^ 100 most beautiful cars
• ^ a b cPorter, Philip (2006). Jaguar E-type, the definitive history. p. 443. ISBN 0-85429-580-1.
• ^ a b"’69 Series 2 Jaguar E Types", Autocar, October 24, 1968
• ^ a b c d eThe Complete Official Jaguar "E". Cambridge: Robert Bentley. 1974. p. 12. ISBN 0-8376-0136-3.
• ^ a b c d e f g"Jaguar E-Type Specifications". http://www.web-cars.com/e-type/specifications.php. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
• ^ a b"Buying secondhand E-type Jaguar". Autocar 141 (nbr4042): pages 50–52. 6 April 1974.
^ See Jaguar Clubs of North America concourse information at: [1] and more specifically the actual Series 1½ concourse guide at [2]
^ Ibid.
^ Compare right hand drive VIN numbers given in JCNA concours guide referred to above with production dates for right hand drive cars as reflected in the XKEdata database at [3]
^"The Jaguar E-type". The Motor. March 22, 1961.
• ^ a b cRobson, Graham (2006). A–Z British Cars 1945–1980. Devon, UK: Herridge & Sons. ISBN 0-9541063-9-3.
• ^ a b chttp://www.xkedata.com/stats/. http://www.xkedata.com/stats/. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
^Daily Express Motor Show Review 1975 Cars: Page 24 (Jaguar E V12). October 1974.
^ jalopnik.com/5101872/british-man-cobbles-together-last-ja…

Jaguar E-Type 4.2 at Samuel’s in Allston: Cockpit view with the hood open
dating tips for men

Image by Chris Devers
Quoting from Wikipedia: Jaguar E-Type:

• • • • •

The Jaguar E-Type (UK) or XK-E (US) is a British automobile manufactured by Jaguar between 1961 and 1974. Its combination of good looks, high performance, and competitive pricing established the marque as an icon of 1960s motoring. A great success for Jaguar, over seventy thousand E-Types were sold during its lifespan.

In March 2008, the Jaguar E-Type ranked first in Daily Telegraph list of the "100 most beautiful cars" of all time.[2] In 2004, Sports Car International magazine placed the E-Type at number one on their list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s.

Contents

1 Overview
2 Concept versions
•• 2.1 E1A (1957)
•• 2.2 E2A (1960)
3 Production versions
•• 3.1 Series 1 (1961-1968)
•• 3.2 Series 2 (1969-1971)
•• 3.3 Series 3 (1971-1975)
4 Limited edtions
•• 4.1 Low Drag Coupé (1962)
•• 4.2 Lightweight E-Type (1963-1964)
5 Motor Sport
6 See also
7 References
8 External links

Overview

The E-Type was initially designed and shown to the public as a grand tourer in two-seater coupé form (FHC or Fixed Head Coupé) and as convertible (OTS or Open Two Seater). The 2+2 version with a lengthened wheelbase was released several years later.

On its release Enzo Ferrari called it "The most beautiful car ever made".

The model was made in three distinct versions which are now generally referred to as "Series 1", "Series 2" and "Series 3". A transitional series between Series 1 and Series 2 is known unofficially as "Series 1½".

In addition, several limited-edition variants were produced:

• The "’Lightweight’ E-Type" which was apparently intended as a sort of follow-up to the D-Type. Jaguar planned to produce 18 units but ultimately only a dozen were reportedly built. Of those, one is known to have been destroyed and two others have been converted to coupé form. These are exceedingly rare and sought after by collectors.
• The "Low Drag Coupé" was a one-off technical exercise which was ultimately sold to a Jaguar racing driver. It is presently believed to be part of the private collection of the current Viscount Cowdray.

Concept versions

E1A (1957)

After their success at LeMans 24 hr through the 1950s Jaguars defunct racing department were given the brief to use D-Type style construction to build a road going sports car, replacing the XK150.

It is suspected that the first prototype (E1A) was given the code based on: (E): The proposed production name E-Type (1): First Prototype (A): Aluminium construction (Production models used steel bodies)

The car featured a monocoque design, Jaguar’s fully independent rear suspension and the well proved "XK" engine.

The car was used solely for factory testings and was never formally released to the public. The car was eventually scrapped by the factory

E2A (1960)

Jaguar’s second E-Type concept was E2A which unlike E1A was constructed from a steel chassis and used a aluminium body. This car was completed as a race car as it was thought by Jaguar at the time it would provide a better testing ground.

E2A used a 3 litre version of the XK engine with a Lucas fuel injection system.

After retiring from the LeMans 24 hr the car was shipped to America to be used for racing by Jaguar privateer Briggs Cunningham.

In 1961 the car returned to Jaguar in England to be used as a testing mule.

Ownership of E2A passed to Roger Woodley (Jaguars customer competition car manager) who took possession on the basis the car not be used for racing. E2A had been scheduled to be scrapped.

Roger’s wife Penny Griffiths owned E2A until 2008 when it was offered for sale at Bonham’s Quail Auction. Sale price was US.5 million

Production versions

Series 1 (1961-1968)

Series I

• Production
1961–1968[3] [4]

Body style(s)
2-door coupe
2-door 2+2 coupe
2-door convertible

Engine(s)
3.8 L XK I6
4.2 L XK I6

Wheelbase
96.0 in (2438 mm) (FHC / OTS)
105.0 in (2667 mm) (2+2) [5]

• Length
175.3125 in (4453 mm) (FHC / OTS)
184.4375 in (4685 mm) (2+2) [5]

• Width
65.25 in (1657 mm) (all) [5]

• Height
48.125 in (1222 mm) (FHC)
50.125 in (1273 mm) (2+2)
46.5 in (1181 mm) (OTS)[5]

Curb weight
2,900 lb (1,315 kg) (FHC)
2,770 lb (1,256 kg) (OTS)
3,090 lb (1,402 kg) (2+2) [6]

• Fuel capacity
63.64 L (16.8 US gal; 14.0 imp gal)[5]

The Series 1 was introduced, initially for export only, in March 1961. The domestic market launch came four months later in July 1961.[7] The cars at this time used the triple SU carburetted 3.8 litre 6-cylinder Jaguar XK6 engine from the XK150S. The first 500 cars built had flat floors and external hood (bonnet) latches. These cars are rare and more valuable. After that, the floors were dished to provide more leg room and the twin hood latches moved to inside the car. The 3.8 litre engine was increased to 4.2 litres in October 1964.[7]

All E-Types featured independent coil spring rear suspension with torsion bar front ends, and four wheel disc brakes, in-board at the rear, all were power-assisted. Jaguar was one of the first auto manufacturers to equip cars with disc brakes as standard from the XK150 in 1958. The Series 1 can be recognised by glass covered headlights (up to 1967), small "mouth" opening at the front, signal lights and tail-lights above bumpers and exhaust tips under the licence plate in the rear.

3.8 litre cars have leather-upholstered bucket seats, an aluminium-trimmed centre instrument panel and console (changed to vinyl and leather in 1963), and a Moss 4-speed gearbox that lacks synchromesh for 1st gear ("Moss box"). 4.2 litre cars have more comfortable seats, improved brakes and electrical systems, and an all-synchromesh 4-speed gearbox. 4.2 litre cars also have a badge on the boot proclaiming "Jaguar 4.2 Litre E-Type" (3.8 cars have a simple "Jaguar" badge). Optional extras included chrome spoked wheels and a detachable hard top for the OTS.

An original E-Type hard top is very rare, and finding one intact with all the chrome, not to mention original paint in decent condition, is rather difficult. For those who want a hardtop and aren’t fussy over whether or not it is an original from Jaguar, several third parties have recreated the hardtop to almost exact specifications. The cost ranges anywhere from double to triple the cost of a canvas/vinyl soft top.

A 2+2 version of the coupé was added in 1966. The 2+2 offered the option of an automatic transmission. The body is 9 in (229 mm) longer and the roof angles are different with a more vertical windscreen. The roadster remained a strict two-seater.

There was a transitional series of cars built in 1967-68, unofficially called "Series 1½", which are externally similar to Series 1 cars. Due to American pressure the new features were open headlights, different switches, and some de-tuning (with a downgrade of twin Zenith-Stromberg carbs from the original triple SU carbs) for US models. Some Series 1½ cars also have twin cooling fans and adjustable seat backs. Series 2 features were gradually introduced into the Series 1, creating the unofficial Series 1½ cars, but always with the Series 1 body style.

Less widely known, there was also right at the end of Series 1 production and prior to the transitional "Series 1½" referred to above, a very small number of Series 1 cars produced with open headlights.[8] These are sometimes referred to as "Series 1¼" cars.[9] Production dates on these machines vary but in right hand drive form production has been verified as late as March 1968.[10] It is thought that the low number of these cars produced relative to the other Series make them amongst the rarest of all production E Types.

An open 3.8 litre car, actually the first such production car to be completed, was tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1961 and had a top speed of 149.1 mph (240.0 km/h) and could accelerate from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 7.1 seconds. A fuel consumption of 21.3 miles per imperial gallon (13.3 L/100 km; 17.7 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost £2097 including taxes.[11]

Production numbers from Graham[12]:

• 15,490 3.8s
• 17,320 4.2s
• 10,930 2+2s

Production numbers from xkedata.com[13]: [omitted -- Flickr doesn't allow tables]

Series 2 (1969-1971)

Series II

• Production
1969–1971[3] [4]

Body style(s)
2-door coupe
2-door 2+2 coupe
2-door convertible

Engine(s)
4.2 L XK I6

Curb weight
3,018 lb (1,369 kg) (FHC)
2,750 lb (1,247 kg) (OTS)
3,090 lb (1,402 kg) (2+2) [6]

Open headlights without glass covers, a wrap-around rear bumper, re-positioned and larger front indicators and taillights below the bumpers, better cooling aided by an enlarged "mouth" and twin electric fans, and uprated brakes are hallmarks of Series 2 cars. De-tuned in US, but still with triple SUs in the UK, the engine is easily identified visually by the change from smooth polished cam covers to a more industrial ‘ribbed’ appearance. Late Series 1½ cars also had ribbed cam covers. The interior and dashboard were also redesigned, with rocker switches that met U.S health and safety regulations being substituted for toggle switches. The dashboard switches also lost their symmetrical layout. New seats were fitted, which purists claim lacked the style of the originals but were certainly more comfortable. Air conditioning and power steering were available as factory options.

Production according to Graham[12] is 13,490 of all types.

Series 2 production numbers from xkedata.com[13]: [omitted -- Flickr doesn't allow tables]

Official delivery numbers by market and year are listed in Porter[3] but no summary totals are given.

Series 3 (1971-1975)

Series III

• Production
1971–1975

Body style(s)
2-door 2+2 coupe
2-door convertible

Engine(s)
5.3 L Jaguar V12

Wheelbase
105 in (2667 mm) (both)[6]

• Length
184.4 in (4684 mm) (2+2)
184.5 in (4686 mm) (OTS)[6]

• Width
66.0 in (1676 mm) (2+2)
66.1 in (1679 mm) (OTS)[6]

• Height
48.9 in (1242 mm) (2+2)
48.1 in (1222 mm) (OTS)[6]

Curb weight
3,361 lb (1,525 kg) (2+2)
3,380 lb (1,533 kg) (OTS)[6]

• Fuel capacity
82 L (21.7 US gal; 18.0 imp gal)[14]

A new 5.3 L 12-cylinder Jaguar V12 engine was introduced, with uprated brakes and standard power steering. The short wheelbase FHC body style was discontinued and the V12 was available only as a convertible and 2+2 coupé. The convertible used the longer-wheelbase 2+2 floorplan. It is easily identifiable by the large cross-slatted front grille, flared wheel arches and a badge on the rear that proclaims it to be a V12. There were also a very limited number of 4.2 litre six-cylinder Series 3 E-Types built. These were featured in the initial sales literature. It is believed these are the rarest of all E-Types of any remaining.

In 2008 a British classic car enthusiast assembled what is surely the last ever E-Type from parts bought from the end-of-production surplus in 1974.[15]

Graham[12] lists production at 15,290.

Series 3 production numbers from xkedata.com[13]: [omitted -- Flickr doesn't allow tables]

Limited edtions

Two limited production E-Type variants were made as test beds, the Low Drag Coupe and Lightweight E-Type, both of which were raced:

Low Drag Coupé (1962)

Shortly after the introduction of the E-Type, Jaguar management wanted to investigate the possibility of building a car more in the spirit of the D-Type racer from which elements of the E-Type’s styling and design were derived. One car was built to test the concept designed as a coupé as its monocoque design could only be made rigid enough for racing by using the "stressed skin" principle. Previous Jaguar racers were built as open-top cars because they were based on ladder frame designs with independent chassis and bodies. Unlike the steel production E-Types the LDC used lightweight aluminium. Sayer retained the original tub with lighter outer panels riveted and glued to it. The front steel sub frame remained intact, the windshield was given a more pronounced slope and the rear hatch welded shut. Rear brake cooling ducts appeared next to the rear windows,and the interior trim was discarded, with only insulation around the transmission tunnel. With the exception of the windscreen, all cockpit glass was plexi. A tuned version of Jaguar’s 3.8 litre engine with a wide angle cylinder-head design tested on the D-Type racers was used. Air management became a major problem and, although much sexier looking and certainly faster than a production E-Type, the car was never competitive: the faster it went, the more it wanted to do what its design dictated: take off.

The one and only test bed car was completed in summer of 1962 but was sold a year later to Jaguar racing driver Dick Protheroe who raced it extensively and eventually sold it. Since then it has passed through the hands of several collectors on both sides of the Atlantic and now is believed to reside in the private collection of the current Viscount Cowdray.

Lightweight E-Type (1963-1964)

In some ways, this was an evolution of the Low Drag Coupé. It made extensive use of aluminium alloy in the body panels and other components. However, with at least one exception, it remained an open-top car in the spirit of the D-Type to which this car is a more direct successor than the production E-Type which is more of a GT than a sports car. The cars used a tuned version of the production 3.8 litre Jaguar engine with 300 bhp (224 kW) output rather than the 265 bhp (198 kW) produced by the "ordinary" version. At least one car is known to have been fitted with fuel-injection.

The cars were entered in various races but, unlike the C-Type and D-Type racing cars, they did not win at Le Mans or Sebring.

Motor Sport

Bob Jane won the 1963 Australian GT Championship at the wheel of an E-Type.

The Jaguar E-Type was very successful in SCCA Production sports car racing with Group44 and Bob Tullius taking the B-Production championship with a Series-3 V12 racer in 1975. A few years later, Gran-Turismo Jaguar from Cleveland Ohio campaigned a 4.2 L 6 cylinder FHC racer in SCCA production series and in 1980, won the National Championship in the SCCA C-Production Class defeating a fully funded factory Nissan Z-car team with Paul Newman.

See also

Jaguar XK150 – predecessor to the E-Type
Jaguar XJS – successor to the E-Type
Jaguar XK8 – The E-Type’s current and spiritual successor
Guyson E12 – a rebodied series III built by William Towns

References

^ Loughborough graduate and designer of E Type Jaguar honoured
^ 100 most beautiful cars
• ^ a b cPorter, Philip (2006). Jaguar E-type, the definitive history. p. 443. ISBN 0-85429-580-1.
• ^ a b"’69 Series 2 Jaguar E Types", Autocar, October 24, 1968
• ^ a b c d eThe Complete Official Jaguar "E". Cambridge: Robert Bentley. 1974. p. 12. ISBN 0-8376-0136-3.
• ^ a b c d e f g"Jaguar E-Type Specifications". http://www.web-cars.com/e-type/specifications.php. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
• ^ a b"Buying secondhand E-type Jaguar". Autocar 141 (nbr4042): pages 50–52. 6 April 1974.
^ See Jaguar Clubs of North America concourse information at: [1] and more specifically the actual Series 1½ concourse guide at [2]
^ Ibid.
^ Compare right hand drive VIN numbers given in JCNA concours guide referred to above with production dates for right hand drive cars as reflected in the XKEdata database at [3]
^"The Jaguar E-type". The Motor. March 22, 1961.
• ^ a b cRobson, Graham (2006). A–Z British Cars 1945–1980. Devon, UK: Herridge & Sons. ISBN 0-9541063-9-3.
• ^ a b chttp://www.xkedata.com/stats/. http://www.xkedata.com/stats/. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
^Daily Express Motor Show Review 1975 Cars: Page 24 (Jaguar E V12). October 1974.
^ jalopnik.com/5101872/british-man-cobbles-together-last-ja…

Old Jaguar E-type sports car: driver’s console
dating tips for men

Image by Chris Devers
Quoting from Wikipedia: Jaguar E-Type:

• • • • •

The Jaguar E-Type (UK) or XK-E (US) is a British automobile manufactured by Jaguar between 1961 and 1974. Its combination of good looks, high performance, and competitive pricing established the marque as an icon of 1960s motoring. A great success for Jaguar, over seventy thousand E-Types were sold during its lifespan.

In March 2008, the Jaguar E-Type ranked first in Daily Telegraph list of the "100 most beautiful cars" of all time.[2] In 2004, Sports Car International magazine placed the E-Type at number one on their list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s.

Contents

1 Overview
2 Concept versions
•• 2.1 E1A (1957)
•• 2.2 E2A (1960)
3 Production versions
•• 3.1 Series 1 (1961-1968)
•• 3.2 Series 2 (1969-1971)
•• 3.3 Series 3 (1971-1975)
4 Limited edtions
•• 4.1 Low Drag Coupé (1962)
•• 4.2 Lightweight E-Type (1963-1964)
5 Motor Sport
6 See also
7 References
8 External links

Overview

The E-Type was initially designed and shown to the public as a grand tourer in two-seater coupé form (FHC or Fixed Head Coupé) and as convertible (OTS or Open Two Seater). The 2+2 version with a lengthened wheelbase was released several years later.

On its release Enzo Ferrari called it "The most beautiful car ever made".

The model was made in three distinct versions which are now generally referred to as "Series 1", "Series 2" and "Series 3". A transitional series between Series 1 and Series 2 is known unofficially as "Series 1½".

In addition, several limited-edition variants were produced:

• The "’Lightweight’ E-Type" which was apparently intended as a sort of follow-up to the D-Type. Jaguar planned to produce 18 units but ultimately only a dozen were reportedly built. Of those, one is known to have been destroyed and two others have been converted to coupé form. These are exceedingly rare and sought after by collectors.
• The "Low Drag Coupé" was a one-off technical exercise which was ultimately sold to a Jaguar racing driver. It is presently believed to be part of the private collection of the current Viscount Cowdray.

Concept versions

E1A (1957)

After their success at LeMans 24 hr through the 1950s Jaguars defunct racing department were given the brief to use D-Type style construction to build a road going sports car, replacing the XK150.

It is suspected that the first prototype (E1A) was given the code based on: (E): The proposed production name E-Type (1): First Prototype (A): Aluminium construction (Production models used steel bodies)

The car featured a monocoque design, Jaguar’s fully independent rear suspension and the well proved "XK" engine.

The car was used solely for factory testings and was never formally released to the public. The car was eventually scrapped by the factory

E2A (1960)

Jaguar’s second E-Type concept was E2A which unlike E1A was constructed from a steel chassis and used a aluminium body. This car was completed as a race car as it was thought by Jaguar at the time it would provide a better testing ground.

E2A used a 3 litre version of the XK engine with a Lucas fuel injection system.

After retiring from the LeMans 24 hr the car was shipped to America to be used for racing by Jaguar privateer Briggs Cunningham.

In 1961 the car returned to Jaguar in England to be used as a testing mule.

Ownership of E2A passed to Roger Woodley (Jaguars customer competition car manager) who took possession on the basis the car not be used for racing. E2A had been scheduled to be scrapped.

Roger’s wife Penny Griffiths owned E2A until 2008 when it was offered for sale at Bonham’s Quail Auction. Sale price was US.5 million

Production versions

Series 1 (1961-1968)

Series I

• Production
1961–1968[3] [4]

Body style(s)
2-door coupe
2-door 2+2 coupe
2-door convertible

Engine(s)
3.8 L XK I6
4.2 L XK I6

Wheelbase
96.0 in (2438 mm) (FHC / OTS)
105.0 in (2667 mm) (2+2) [5]

• Length
175.3125 in (4453 mm) (FHC / OTS)
184.4375 in (4685 mm) (2+2) [5]

• Width
65.25 in (1657 mm) (all) [5]

• Height
48.125 in (1222 mm) (FHC)
50.125 in (1273 mm) (2+2)
46.5 in (1181 mm) (OTS)[5]

Curb weight
2,900 lb (1,315 kg) (FHC)
2,770 lb (1,256 kg) (OTS)
3,090 lb (1,402 kg) (2+2) [6]

• Fuel capacity
63.64 L (16.8 US gal; 14.0 imp gal)[5]

The Series 1 was introduced, initially for export only, in March 1961. The domestic market launch came four months later in July 1961.[7] The cars at this time used the triple SU carburetted 3.8 litre 6-cylinder Jaguar XK6 engine from the XK150S. The first 500 cars built had flat floors and external hood (bonnet) latches. These cars are rare and more valuable. After that, the floors were dished to provide more leg room and the twin hood latches moved to inside the car. The 3.8 litre engine was increased to 4.2 litres in October 1964.[7]

All E-Types featured independent coil spring rear suspension with torsion bar front ends, and four wheel disc brakes, in-board at the rear, all were power-assisted. Jaguar was one of the first auto manufacturers to equip cars with disc brakes as standard from the XK150 in 1958. The Series 1 can be recognised by glass covered headlights (up to 1967), small "mouth" opening at the front, signal lights and tail-lights above bumpers and exhaust tips under the licence plate in the rear.

3.8 litre cars have leather-upholstered bucket seats, an aluminium-trimmed centre instrument panel and console (changed to vinyl and leather in 1963), and a Moss 4-speed gearbox that lacks synchromesh for 1st gear ("Moss box"). 4.2 litre cars have more comfortable seats, improved brakes and electrical systems, and an all-synchromesh 4-speed gearbox. 4.2 litre cars also have a badge on the boot proclaiming "Jaguar 4.2 Litre E-Type" (3.8 cars have a simple "Jaguar" badge). Optional extras included chrome spoked wheels and a detachable hard top for the OTS.

An original E-Type hard top is very rare, and finding one intact with all the chrome, not to mention original paint in decent condition, is rather difficult. For those who want a hardtop and aren’t fussy over whether or not it is an original from Jaguar, several third parties have recreated the hardtop to almost exact specifications. The cost ranges anywhere from double to triple the cost of a canvas/vinyl soft top.

A 2+2 version of the coupé was added in 1966. The 2+2 offered the option of an automatic transmission. The body is 9 in (229 mm) longer and the roof angles are different with a more vertical windscreen. The roadster remained a strict two-seater.

There was a transitional series of cars built in 1967-68, unofficially called "Series 1½", which are externally similar to Series 1 cars. Due to American pressure the new features were open headlights, different switches, and some de-tuning (with a downgrade of twin Zenith-Stromberg carbs from the original triple SU carbs) for US models. Some Series 1½ cars also have twin cooling fans and adjustable seat backs. Series 2 features were gradually introduced into the Series 1, creating the unofficial Series 1½ cars, but always with the Series 1 body style.

Less widely known, there was also right at the end of Series 1 production and prior to the transitional "Series 1½" referred to above, a very small number of Series 1 cars produced with open headlights.[8] These are sometimes referred to as "Series 1¼" cars.[9] Production dates on these machines vary but in right hand drive form production has been verified as late as March 1968.[10] It is thought that the low number of these cars produced relative to the other Series make them amongst the rarest of all production E Types.

An open 3.8 litre car, actually the first such production car to be completed, was tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1961 and had a top speed of 149.1 mph (240.0 km/h) and could accelerate from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 7.1 seconds. A fuel consumption of 21.3 miles per imperial gallon (13.3 L/100 km; 17.7 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost £2097 including taxes.[11]

Production numbers from Graham[12]:

• 15,490 3.8s
• 17,320 4.2s
• 10,930 2+2s

Production numbers from xkedata.com[13]: [omitted -- Flickr doesn't allow tables]

Series 2 (1969-1971)

Series II

• Production
1969–1971[3] [4]

Body style(s)
2-door coupe
2-door 2+2 coupe
2-door convertible

Engine(s)
4.2 L XK I6

Curb weight
3,018 lb (1,369 kg) (FHC)
2,750 lb (1,247 kg) (OTS)
3,090 lb (1,402 kg) (2+2) [6]

Open headlights without glass covers, a wrap-around rear bumper, re-positioned and larger front indicators and taillights below the bumpers, better cooling aided by an enlarged "mouth" and twin electric fans, and uprated brakes are hallmarks of Series 2 cars. De-tuned in US, but still with triple SUs in the UK, the engine is easily identified visually by the change from smooth polished cam covers to a more industrial ‘ribbed’ appearance. Late Series 1½ cars also had ribbed cam covers. The interior and dashboard were also redesigned, with rocker switches that met U.S health and safety regulations being substituted for toggle switches. The dashboard switches also lost their symmetrical layout. New seats were fitted, which purists claim lacked the style of the originals but were certainly more comfortable. Air conditioning and power steering were available as factory options.

Production according to Graham[12] is 13,490 of all types.

Series 2 production numbers from xkedata.com[13]: [omitted -- Flickr doesn't allow tables]

Official delivery numbers by market and year are listed in Porter[3] but no summary totals are given.

Series 3 (1971-1975)

Series III

• Production
1971–1975

Body style(s)
2-door 2+2 coupe
2-door convertible

Engine(s)
5.3 L Jaguar V12

Wheelbase
105 in (2667 mm) (both)[6]

• Length
184.4 in (4684 mm) (2+2)
184.5 in (4686 mm) (OTS)[6]

• Width
66.0 in (1676 mm) (2+2)
66.1 in (1679 mm) (OTS)[6]

• Height
48.9 in (1242 mm) (2+2)
48.1 in (1222 mm) (OTS)[6]

Curb weight
3,361 lb (1,525 kg) (2+2)
3,380 lb (1,533 kg) (OTS)[6]

• Fuel capacity
82 L (21.7 US gal; 18.0 imp gal)[14]

A new 5.3 L 12-cylinder Jaguar V12 engine was introduced, with uprated brakes and standard power steering. The short wheelbase FHC body style was discontinued and the V12 was available only as a convertible and 2+2 coupé. The convertible used the longer-wheelbase 2+2 floorplan. It is easily identifiable by the large cross-slatted front grille, flared wheel arches and a badge on the rear that proclaims it to be a V12. There were also a very limited number of 4.2 litre six-cylinder Series 3 E-Types built. These were featured in the initial sales literature. It is believed these are the rarest of all E-Types of any remaining.

In 2008 a British classic car enthusiast assembled what is surely the last ever E-Type from parts bought from the end-of-production surplus in 1974.[15]

Graham[12] lists production at 15,290.

Series 3 production numbers from xkedata.com[13]: [omitted -- Flickr doesn't allow tables]

Limited edtions

Two limited production E-Type variants were made as test beds, the Low Drag Coupe and Lightweight E-Type, both of which were raced:

Low Drag Coupé (1962)

Shortly after the introduction of the E-Type, Jaguar management wanted to investigate the possibility of building a car more in the spirit of the D-Type racer from which elements of the E-Type’s styling and design were derived. One car was built to test the concept designed as a coupé as its monocoque design could only be made rigid enough for racing by using the "stressed skin" principle. Previous Jaguar racers were built as open-top cars because they were based on ladder frame designs with independent chassis and bodies. Unlike the steel production E-Types the LDC used lightweight aluminium. Sayer retained the original tub with lighter outer panels riveted and glued to it. The front steel sub frame remained intact, the windshield was given a more pronounced slope and the rear hatch welded shut. Rear brake cooling ducts appeared next to the rear windows,and the interior trim was discarded, with only insulation around the transmission tunnel. With the exception of the windscreen, all cockpit glass was plexi. A tuned version of Jaguar’s 3.8 litre engine with a wide angle cylinder-head design tested on the D-Type racers was used. Air management became a major problem and, although much sexier looking and certainly faster than a production E-Type, the car was never competitive: the faster it went, the more it wanted to do what its design dictated: take off.

The one and only test bed car was completed in summer of 1962 but was sold a year later to Jaguar racing driver Dick Protheroe who raced it extensively and eventually sold it. Since then it has passed through the hands of several collectors on both sides of the Atlantic and now is believed to reside in the private collection of the current Viscount Cowdray.

Lightweight E-Type (1963-1964)

In some ways, this was an evolution of the Low Drag Coupé. It made extensive use of aluminium alloy in the body panels and other components. However, with at least one exception, it remained an open-top car in the spirit of the D-Type to which this car is a more direct successor than the production E-Type which is more of a GT than a sports car. The cars used a tuned version of the production 3.8 litre Jaguar engine with 300 bhp (224 kW) output rather than the 265 bhp (198 kW) produced by the "ordinary" version. At least one car is known to have been fitted with fuel-injection.

The cars were entered in various races but, unlike the C-Type and D-Type racing cars, they did not win at Le Mans or Sebring.

Motor Sport

Bob Jane won the 1963 Australian GT Championship at the wheel of an E-Type.

The Jaguar E-Type was very successful in SCCA Production sports car racing with Group44 and Bob Tullius taking the B-Production championship with a Series-3 V12 racer in 1975. A few years later, Gran-Turismo Jaguar from Cleveland Ohio campaigned a 4.2 L 6 cylinder FHC racer in SCCA production series and in 1980, won the National Championship in the SCCA C-Production Class defeating a fully funded factory Nissan Z-car team with Paul Newman.

See also

Jaguar XK150 – predecessor to the E-Type
Jaguar XJS – successor to the E-Type
Jaguar XK8 – The E-Type’s current and spiritual successor
Guyson E12 – a rebodied series III built by William Towns

References

^ Loughborough graduate and designer of E Type Jaguar honoured
^ 100 most beautiful cars
• ^ a b cPorter, Philip (2006). Jaguar E-type, the definitive history. p. 443. ISBN 0-85429-580-1.
• ^ a b"’69 Series 2 Jaguar E Types", Autocar, October 24, 1968
• ^ a b c d eThe Complete Official Jaguar "E". Cambridge: Robert Bentley. 1974. p. 12. ISBN 0-8376-0136-3.
• ^ a b c d e f g"Jaguar E-Type Specifications". http://www.web-cars.com/e-type/specifications.php. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
• ^ a b"Buying secondhand E-type Jaguar". Autocar 141 (nbr4042): pages 50–52. 6 April 1974.
^ See Jaguar Clubs of North America concourse information at: [1] and more specifically the actual Series 1½ concourse guide at [2]
^ Ibid.
^ Compare right hand drive VIN numbers given in JCNA concours guide referred to above with production dates for right hand drive cars as reflected in the XKEdata database at [3]
^"The Jaguar E-type". The Motor. March 22, 1961.
• ^ a b cRobson, Graham (2006). A–Z British Cars 1945–1980. Devon, UK: Herridge & Sons. ISBN 0-9541063-9-3.
• ^ a b chttp://www.xkedata.com/stats/. http://www.xkedata.com/stats/. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
^Daily Express Motor Show Review 1975 Cars: Page 24 (Jaguar E V12). October 1974.
^ jalopnik.com/5101872/british-man-cobbles-together-last-ja…

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The Worst Way To Approach A Woman (1 Min Dating Tips)

Learn To Approach Women www.approachatwill.com Starting a conversation with a woman you don’t know yet can be difficult for many men. There are many ideas, strategies and tips that can help you in the process, but there are also some basic rules to obey. If you want to make sure that a girl is willing to talk to you even though she doesn’t know you you’ve got to make sure you don’t create a weird vibe at the very beginning. So the smoother you can start off a conversation with her and approach her the better. In this video you’ll learn what to avoid doing when you start a conversation with a girl. It’s super simple but I’ve had too many emails about this topic to not make this quick video. Learn to approach women without lines, routines or weird scripts www.approachatwill.com the worst way to approach a woman (1 min dating tips): www.youtube.com

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SAINT JOHN BOSCO

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SAINT JOHN BOSCO
dating tips for men

Image by Fergal of Claddagh
John Bosco was born in Becchi on the 16th of August, 1815. He came from a family of poor farmers. He lost his father, Francesco, at the age of two.
His mother raised him. She taught him to cultivate the soil and to see God behind the beauty of the heavens, the abundance of the harvest, the rain which showered the vines. Mamma Margherita, in the church, learned to pray, and she taught her children to do the same. For John, to pray meant to speak with God on his knees on the kitchen pavement, to think of him while seated on the grass, gazing at the heavens.
From his mother, John learned to see God also in other faces, those of the poor or those of the miserable ones who came knocking at the door of the house during winter, and to whom Margherita gave hot soup, mended shoes.

The great dream
At the age of nine, Don Bosco had the first, great dream which marked his entire life. He saw a multitude of very poor boys who play and blaspheme. A Man of majestic appearance told him: With meekness and charity you will conquer these your friends; and a Lady just as majestic added: Make yourself humble, strong and robust. At the right time you will understand everything.
The years which followed were given direction by that dream. Son and mother saw in it the indication of a way of life.
John tried immediately to do good for boys. When the visiting performers trumpet announced a local feast in the nearby hills, John went and sat in the front row to watch them. He studied the jugglers, tricks and the acrobats secrets. One Sunday evening, John gave his first performance in front of the kids from the neighbouring houses. He performed balancing miracles with pots and pans on the tip of his nose. Then he jumped up on a rope strung between two trees, and walked on it applauded by the young spectators. Before the grandiose conclusion, he repeated for them the sermon he heard at the morning Mass, and invited all to pray. The games and the Word of God began transforming his little friends, who willingly prayed in his company.
Little John understood that to do good for so many boys he needed to study and become a priest. But his brother Anthony, already 18 and an unlettered peasant, did not want to hear of this… He threw away his books and belted him.
On a cold morning of February 1827, John left his home and went to look for work as a farm-servant. He was only 12 but life at home was unbearable on account of the continuous quarrels with Anthony. He worked on the Moglia farm, near Moncucco, during three years. He led the cattle to pasture, milked the cows, put fresh hay in the manger, plowed the fields with the oxen. During the long nights of winter time and during summer, sitting under the trees while the cows stripped their leaves, he went back to his books and studies.
Anthony married three years later. John returned home and resumed his schooling, first at Castelnuovo and then at Chieri. To provide for his needs he learnt different trades: tailor, blacksmith, barman, and he even coached students after classes.
He was intelligent and brilliant, and the best students of the school flocked around him. He founded what was known as the Happy Club. At 20 years of age, John Bosco took the most important decision of his life: he entered the Seminary. There followed six years of intense studies after which he was ordained priest.

He becomes Don Bosco
On June 5, 1841, the archbishop of Turin ordained John Bosco a priest. Now Don Bosco (in Italy the family name of the priest is preceded by Don) was finally able to dedicate himself full time to the abandoned boys he had seen in his dreams. He went to look for them in the streets of Turin. On those first Sundays—says young Michael Rua, one of the first boys he met in those first months, Don Bosco went through the city to become aware of the moral conditions of the young. He was shocked. The outskirts of the city were zones of turmoil and revolution, places of desolation. Unemployed, sad and ready to do anything adolescents caused problems on the streets. Don Bosco could see them betting on street corners, their faces hard and determined, as if to get their way at any cost.
Near the city public market (Turin had a population of 117,000 inhabitants at that time) he discovered a real market of young workers. The part near Porta Palazzo, he wrote years later swarmed with peddlers, shoe polishers, stable-boys, vendors of any kind, errand boys: all poor people who barely eked out a living day after day. These boys who roamed the streets of Turin were the wicked effect of an event that was throwing the world into confusion: the industrial revolution. This started in England but it soon crossed the English Channel and made its way to the South. It would bring a sense of well-being unheard of in previous centuries, but it would be at a very high human cost: the labour question and the gathering of great number of families below the poverty line in the slums of the cities, coming in from the countryside in search of a better life.

Boys in prison
But Don Bosco met the most dramatic situation when he entered the prisons. he wrote: To see so many boys, from 12 to 18 years of age, all healthy, strong, intelligent, insect bitten, lacking spiritual and material food, was something that horrified me. In the face of such a situation he made his decision: I must by any available means prevent boys ending up here. There were 16 parishes in Turin. The parish priests were aware of the problem of the young but they were expecting them to go to the sacristies and to the Churches for the required catechism classes. They did not realize that because of population growth and migration to the city this way of doing things was inefficient. It was necessary to try new ways, to invent new schemes, to try another form of apostolate, meeting the boys in shops, offices, market places. Many young priests tried this.
Don Bosco met the first boy on December 8, 1841. He took care of him. Three days later there were nine, three months later twenty five and in summer eighty. They were pavers, stone-cutters, masons, plasterers who came from far away places, he recalled in his brief Memoirs.
Thus was born the youth centre (which he called oratorio). This was not simply a charitable institution, and its activities were not limited to Sundays. For Don Bosco the oratorio became his permanent occupation and he looked for jobs for the ones who were unemployed. He tried to obtain a fairer treatment for those who had jobs, he taught those willing to study after their days work.
But some of his boys did not have sleeping quarters and slept under bridges or in bleak public dormitories. Twice he tried to provide lodgings in his house. The first time they stole the blankets; the second they even emptied the hay-loft.
He did not give up though, being the obstinate optimist he was. In the month of May, 1847, he gave shelter to a young lad from Valesia, in one of the three rooms he was renting out in the slums of Valdocco where he was living with his mother. I had three lira when I arrived in Turin said the boy sitting near the fire, but I found no work and no place to sleep.

Money problems
After the youngster from Valsesia, another six boys arrived that same year. In the first months money became a dramatic problem for Don Bosco. It would remain a problem throughout his life. His first benefactor was not a countess but his mother. Margaret (Mamma Margherita), a 59 year old poor peasant, had left her house at Becchi to become mother to these poor boys. To be able to put something on the table, for them to eat, she sold her wedding ring, her earrings and her necklace, things which she had kept jealously until then. The boys sheltered by Don Bosco numbered 36 in 1852, 115 in 1854, 470 in 1860 and 600 in 1861, 800 being the maximum some time later.
Some of these boys decided to do what Don Bosco was doing, that is, to spend their lives in the service of abandoned boys. And this was the origin of the Salesian Congregation. Among the first members we find Michael Rua, John Cagliero (who later became a Cardinal), John Baptist Francesia. In the archives of the Salesian Congregation some extraordinary documents, are to be found, such as: a contract of apprenticeship on ordinary paper, dated November 1851; another one on stamped paper costing 40 cents, dated February 8, 1852; there are others with later dates. These are among the first contracts of apprenticeship to be found in Turin. All of them are signed by the employer, the apprentice and Don Bosco.
In those contracts Don Bosco touched on many sore spots. Some employers made servants and scullery-boys of the apprentices. Don Bosco obliged them to employ them only in their acknowledged trade. Employers used to beat the boys. Don Bosco required of them that corrections be made only through words. He cared for their health, he demanded that they be given rest on feast days, that they be given their annual holidays. But in spite of all the efforts and contracts, the situation of the apprentices of the time remained very difficult.

Bashing leather and pushing an awl
In autumn 1853 Don Bosco came to a decision. He begun shoemaking and tailoring shops in the Oratory at Valdocco. The shoemaking shop was located in a very narrow place near the bell-tower of the first church he had just finished building. There Don Bosco sat at a cobblers bench and in front of four little boys he pounded away at a leather sole. Then he taught them how to manage an awl and pack-thread.
After these shops for shoemakers and tailors, Don Bosco built other shops aimed at training book-binders, carpenters, printers and mechanics; six shops in which the privileged place was reserved for orphans, the poor and totally abandoned boys. To take care of these shops Don Bosco invented a new type of religious: the Coadjutors or Salesian Brothers. Similar shops were very soon built in other Salesian presences outside Turin. The Salesian Brothers have the same dignity and rights as those of the Salesian Priests and clerics, but they are specialized people for professional schools. (At the time of Don Bosco’s death, the Salesian professional schools numbered 14 in all. They existed in Italy, France, Spain and Argentina. The number later would grow to 200 across the world).

Password: At once
In the dialogue between Don Bosco and the first boy (he himself wrote this dialogue) there is the expression at once. It looks like an ordinary expression but in reality it is Don Bosco’s password. In fact Don Bosco is drawn to action by the urgent needs of the young and the impossibility of waiting any longer. In the face of the incertitude of the industrial revolution, in the impossibility of finding good and ready made plans and programmes of action, Don Bosco and the first Salesians used all their energies to do something at once for young people in trouble. What directed their programmes of action were the urgent needs of the youngsters. And young people needed a school and a job that would guarantee a more secure future for them; they needed to feel as if they were really boys, that is, they needed to let loose their desire to run and jump in open green spaces, instead of feeling sad beside city sidewalks; they needed to meet God to discover and live according to their dignity. Bread, catechism, professional training and work protected by a good work contract were the things therefore that Don Bosco and his Salesians tried to offer right away to these youngsters. If you come upon somebody who is dying of hunger, instead of giving him a fish, teach him how to fish, it has rightly been said. But the contrary is also true: If you come upon somebody dying of hunger, give him a fish so that he may have the time to learn how to fish. Immediate intervention is not enough nor is it enough to prepare a different future because meanwhile the poor may die of misery.

I have done nothing
In the following years, Don Bosco, working almost to exhaustion, accomplished many imposing works. Besides the Salesians, he founded the Daughters of Mary Help of Christians and the Salesian Cooperators. He built the Sanctuary of Mary Help of Christians at Valdocco and founded 59 Salesian houses in six nations. He started the Salesian Missions in Latin America sending there Salesian priests, brothers and sisters. He published a series of popular books for ordinary Christians and for boys. He invented a System of Education founded on three values: Reason, Religion and Loving kindness. Very soon people saw in it an ideal system to educate the young. When somebody would tell Don Bosco the list of the works he performed, he would interrupt the person and immediately say: I have done nothing by myself. It is the Virgin Mary who has done everything. She had traced out his road in the famous dream he had when he was nine. Don Bosco died on January 31, 1888, at dawn. To the Salesians who were keeping vigil around his bed he said in a whisper these last words: Love each other as brothers. Do good to all and evil to none… Tell my boys that I wait for them all in Paradise.

Approaching the Kohala Mountains, State Route 19, near Kawaihae, Hawaii
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Image by Ken Lund
I continued on my drive from Kona International Airport to Pu’ukohola Heiau National Historical Park along State Route 19. As I neared Kawaihae, Hawaii, Kohala, the shield volcano comprising the north tip of the Big Island, loomed in the distance.

Kohala is the oldest of five volcanoes that make up the island of Hawaii. It is believed to have last erupted 120,000 years ago. The volcano is cut by multiple deep gorges, the product of thousands of years of erosion.

A dike complex near the volcano’s main caldera separates runoff into two major drainage basins, the Waipiʻo and Waimanu valleys, and it maintains the volcano’s shallow water table. Kohala supports a complex hydrological cycle that has been exploited to provide a water supply to island residents.

Because it is so far from the nearest major landmass, the ecosystem of Kohala has experienced the phenomenon of geographic isolation, resulting in an ecosystem radically different from that of other places. Invasive species introduced by man present a problem to Kohala’s ecosystem, as they push native species out of their habitat. There are several initiatives to preserve Kohala’s ecosystem. Crops, especially sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), have been harvested on the leeward side of the volano for centuries as well. The northern part of the island is named after the mountain, with two districts named North and South Kohala. King Kamehameha I, the first King of the Kingdom of Hawaii, was born in North Kohala, near Hawi.

The volcano is so old that it experienced, and recorded, a reversal of magnetic polarity (a change in the orientation of Earth’s magnetic field so that the positions of the North and South poles interchange) that happened 780,000 years ago. Fifty different flow units in the top 140 m (459 ft) of exposed strata in the Pololu section are of normal polarity, indicating that they were deposited within the last 0.78 million years. Radiometric dating ranged mostly from 450,000 to 320,000 years ago, although several pieces strayed lower; this indicated a period of eruptive history at the time.

Kohala was devastated by a massive landslide between 250,000 and 300,000 years before present. Debris from the slide was found on the ocean floor up to 130 km (81 mi) away from the volcano. Twenty kilometers wide at the shoreline, the landslide cut back to the summit of the volcano, and is partially, if not largely, responsible for the volcano losing 1,000 m (3,281 ft) in height since then. The famous sea cliffs of the windward Kohala shoreline stand as evidence of the massive geologic disaster, and mark the topmost part of the debris from this ancient landslide. There are also several other unique features found on the volcano, all marks made by the decimating collapse.

The volcano’s lava flows are sorted into two layers. The Hawi Volcanic layers were deposited in the shield stage of the volcano’s life, and the younger Pololu Volcanics were deposited in the volcano’s post-shield stage. The rock in the younger Hawi section, which overlies the older Pololu flows, is mostly 260 to 140 thousand years old, and composed mainly of hawaiite and trachyte. The separation between the two layers is not clear; the lowest layers may actually be in the Pololu section, based on their depositional patterns and low phosphorus content. The time intervals separating the two periods of volcanic evolution were extremely brief, something first noted in 1988.

The United States Geological Survey has assessed the extinct Kohala as a low-risk area. The volcano is in zone 9 (bottom risk), while the border of the volcano with Mauna Kea is zone 8 (second lowest), as Mauna Kea has not produced lava flows for 4,500 years.

Kohala, like other shield volcanoes, has a shallow surface slope due to the low viscosity of the lava flows that formed it. Events during and after its eruptions give the volcano several unique geomorphic features, some possibly resulting from the ancient collapse and landslide. The volcano is shaped like a foot; the northeast coast extends prominently across 20 km (12 mi) of shoreline, differing from the ordinarily smooth, rounded shape of Hawaiian volcanoes.

Kohala is dissected by multiple, deeply eroded stream valleys in a west-east alignment, cutting into the flanks of the volcano. The northwestern slope of Kohala has few stream valleys cut into it, the result of the rain shadow effect—the dominant trade winds bring most of the rainfall to the northeastern slope of the volcano.

The valleys are more than 800 m (2,625 ft) in depth, among the oldest and largest of which are the Waipiʻo and Waimanu valleys. The volcano stayed active well into the formation of these mountainside valleys, as illustrated by later Pololu lava flows, which separated into two directions and often flowed into Pololu Valley. Recent seafloor mapping seems to show that the valley extends a short way into the seafloor, and it is believed the valley formed from the tumbled-out rock from the landslide.

The natural habitats in the Kohala district range across a wide rainfall gradient in a very short distance—from less than 5 in (127 mm) a year on the coast near Kawaihae, to more than 150 in (3,810 mm) a year near the summit of Kohala Mountain, a distance of just 11 mi (18 km). At the coast are remnants of dry forests, and near the summit lies a cloud forest, a type of rainforest that obtains much of its moisture from "cloud drip" in addition to precipitation. These large cloud forests dominate its slopes. This biome is rare, and contains a disproportionate percentage of the world’s rare and endemic species. The soil at Kohala is nitrogen-rich, facilitating root growth.

The happy combination of small trees, bushes, ferns, vines, and other forms of ground cover keep the soil porous and allow the water to percolate more easily into underground channels. The foliage of the trees breaks the force of rain and prevents the impact of soil by raindrops. A considerable portion of the precipitation is let down to the ground slowly by this three-story cover of trees, bushes, and floor plants and in this manner the rain, falling on a well-forested area, is held back and instead of rushing down to the sea rapidly in the form of destructive floods, is fed gradually to the springs and to the underground artesian basins where it is held for use over a much longer interval.

The mountain supports approximately 155 native species of vertebrates, crustaceans, mollusks, and plants. A diverse complexion of fungi, liverwort, and mosses further add to the variety. In fact, up to a quarter of the plants in the forest are mosses and ferns. These work to capture the water from clouds, in turn providing microhabitats for invertebrates and amphibians, and their predators. Estimates on the water capacity of the forest range from 792 US gal (2,998 l) to 3,962 US gal (14,998 l) per hectare.

The mountain is also home to several bogs, which exist as breaks in the cloud forests. It is believed that bogs form in low lying areas where clay in the soil prevents proper water drainage, resulting in an accumulation of water that impedes the root systems of woody plants. Kohala’s bogs are characterized by sedges, mosses of the genus Sphagnum, and the endangered ʻŌhai (Sesbania tomentosa). Other habitats include rain forest and mesophytic (wet) forests.

The same isolation that produced Kohala’s unique ecosystem also makes it very vulnerable to invasive species. Alien plants and feral animals are among the greatest threats to the local ecology. Plants like the kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) and the strawberry guava (Psidium littorale) displace native species. Prior to human settlement, many major organisms such as conifers and rodents never made it onto the island, so the ecosystem never developed defenses against them, leaving Hawaii vulnerable to damage by hoofed animals, rodents, and predation.

Kohala’s native Hawaiian rain forest has a thick layer of ferns and mosses carpeting the floor, which act as sponges, absorbing water from rain and not letting much of it through to the soil; when feral animals like pigs trample the covering, the forest loses its ability to hold in water effectively, and the result is a severe loss of topsoil, much of which ends up being dumped by streams into the ocean.

From 1400 to 1800, the principal crop grown at Kohala was sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), although there is also evidence of yams (Dioscorea sp.), taro (Colocasia esculenta), bananas (Musa hybrids), sugarcane (Saacharum officinarum), and gourds of the family Cucurbitaceae. The optimal rainfall level for the sweet potato lies between 30 to 50 inches (76–130 cm) per year. A combination of factors makes the rainfall at Kohala variable both from location to location and from year to year. In addition, Kohala is buffeted by strong winds, which are directly correlated to soil erosion; ancient farmers utilized a series of earthen embarkments and stone walls to protect their crops. This technique has been shown to reduce wind by at least 20–30 percent.

In addition to walls, there are a series of stone paths that divided the farmed area into plots of variable size. These structures are unique because although many people used such systems at the time, Kohala has some of the few to survive. The leeward slopes of Kohala were used for sugar plantations in the late 19th century.Several plantations on the mountain were consolidated into the Kohala Sugar Company by 1937.

Kohala supports a very complex hydrological cycle. In the early part of the 20th century, this was exploited by building surface irrigational channels designed to capture water at the higher elevations and distribute it to the then-extensive sugarcane industry. In 1905, after 18 months and the loss of 17 lives, the Kohala Ditch, a vast network of flumes and ditches, measuring 22 mi (35 km) in length, was completed. Its has since come into use by ranches, farms, and homes.

The Hawaii County Department of Water Supply relies on streams from Kohala to supply water to the population of the island. With increasing demand, the original surface channels have been supplemented by deep wells designed to channel groundwater for domestic use.

The land around Kohala is administered as two districts, North Kohala and South Kohala, of the County of Hawaiʻi. The beaches, parks, golf courses, and resorts in South Kohala are called "the Kohala Coast."

King Kamehameha I, the first King of the unified Hawaiian Islands, was born near Upolu Point, the northern tip of Kohala. The site is within Kohala Historical Sites State Monument. The original Kamehameha Statue stands in front of the community center in Kapaʻau, and replicas of the statue are found at Aliʻiōlani Hale in Honolulu, and in the United States Capitol at the Hall of Columns in Washington, D.C.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kohala_(mountain)

Le Paquebot El Djezair
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Image by photolibrarian
Google translation from the French…
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The ships go to war

Here is a long saga. The episodes that follow are cited by Mr. Henry HOUARD honorary lieutenant, who was, from 1 November 1939 to October 10, 1940, Officer "trans" on the ship "El Djezair", became the auxiliary cruiser "X 17 "at the beginning of the war. The illustrations that accompany these memories come from the photo albums of M. Michel Paquet, whose uncle, Francis Ollive was purser of the same "El Djezair".

Before World War II, traffic, intense, between North Africa and the city was assured, for almost all, with regard to passengers, by the Compagnie Générale Transatlantique and the Compagnie de Navigation Mixte. Under the flag of the latter three small sailing ships bearing the names of Djezair El, El Mansour and El Kentara. The first two, the most recent, were absolutely identical ("sister ships"), the third oldest in a little different. They were small vessels (3 to 4 000 t) but fast (20 knots) and scored a comfortable enough, given the brevity of the crossings. Certainly they did not look imposing large Transat, the City of Algiers and Oran City, but that rather, the large yachts smooth silhouette.

So they pursue their civilian careers, silent and forth between Marseille and Port-Vendres, Algiers and Tunis. Then, in September 1939, everything changed. Pipes to the acronym "NM" disappeared from the Mediterranean.

These three ships, under their stylish look, were not so innocent as that! In their construction, and probably in return for state support (already), they were designed to become, if applicable, auxiliary cruisers. Bridges, in the space provided for artillery platforms were strengthened, the location of the central station fire control remained free electrical cables needed were gone; bunkers and ammunition had elevations location in the hold, and finally seemed powerful radio equipment, for the time and for vessels that remain in the Mediterranean.

"El" to X

From September 1939 the three "EL" were found in sites of Seyne to become the three "X": X-17, respectively, and X-06 X 16. A swarm of workmen made the necessary changes: changes of the silhouette in the sense of discretion and to this end the chimney back, to present a simple matter of aesthetics, was withdrawn and all superstructures painted gray.

Then they installed a powerful artillery. September carriages 130, 75 A two carriages and two double machine gun 13.2. over all facilities essential accessories: rangefinders, fire control systems, tankers, etc.. The optical transmission means were also increased: signal lamps and double morocco for pavillonnerie.

In the month of October, while the work drew to a close, the manning was completed. The entire staff which armed ships in time of peace was maintained and the staff are supplemented by reserve or active duty, especially in the specialties of arms and transmission. The commanders of the three vessels have remained in office and reserve officers or not, have been given the rank of Commander Auxiliary and temporary. The same procedure was adopted for second officers with the rank of auxiliary lieutenant.

The "El Djezair" with a single stack, just before the Second World War.

In operation, they were to form a division under the command of Admiral Cadart cons, of the 2nd Division, who hoisted his mark on the X-17. It was therefore with a staff including chief of staff, transport officer (all three active), Commissioner, doctor, dentist and chaplain. Those who, like Henry Houard, lived near him every day, not soon forget this great figure.

With ended his active career as a captain commanding one of the three Lorraine in the Atlantic Fleet under the command of Admiral de Laborde – hard school he symbolized for all the true sailor’s beard "squared ", an enormous pipe in his mouth constantly. It was the officer of the bridge type, whose career had not made in the backrooms of the Rue Royale. For all, despite some rigidity in the service, he was the "Father Cadart," a term which we must see more of affection and familiarity.

In this crew, a beautiful day of November 39, three El doubled the tip of St. Mandrier to indulge in a few days of intensive training before going into operation.

The "police" of the Atlantic

After a little rest in Toulon and the additional supplies, it was off to Casablanca. Based in that port, Cadart division was given the job of establishing a kind of dam in the Atlantic. In this ocean that these three ships were attending for the first time, the mission was clear: capture German cargo ships or sailing under another flag, but the benefit of Germany.

By accident or on information, several freighters were boarded and headed for Casablanca. Others were left free after reviewing the documents on board and the nature of cargo, by a team of one of the three cruisers. Few shots across the bow to bring to reason those who were late to stop military actions were the only of this period which lasted until February 1940.

That’s when the division was in Casablanca rally around Brest unspecified. It was war. Soon arrived at Brest, the three "X" were supported by the arsenal .. New transformations permitted to advance assumptions about the fate of the Division.

Draft Far North

Designed for navigation in the gentle waters under the Mediterranean sun they could, in the state, the rigors of the North. Heating systems were strengthened, all exterior ducts insulated and equipped with Canadian men and woolen hats. Also air defense was increased two carriages 130 to the front carriages were replaced by two double 37-AA.

Everything was planned for the Far North Mission Division Cadart reserved by the Admiralty in agreement with the English who appreciated highly the qualities and capabilities of these three boats. "Fast And The Three small ships" they said. It was necessary to rescue Finland, attacked by the USSR and Germany.

Failing to reach the White Sea, too unhealthy, the only port possible was Petsamo on the Arctic Ocean, beyond the North Cape. Everything was ready for the equipment but no orders came. The expedition was canceled Petsamo. Why? Perhaps the information they have collected on the precariousness of the Nazi-Soviet pact. Or more simply, this expedition may have been considered too adventurous? Other projects have then been scaffolded in which the division Cadart found its place?

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El Mansour "saw the bridge of" El Djezair ".

On the bridge of "El Djezair" against the Admiral Cadart (right) and the second class midshipman H. Houard narrator of the story

We will interrupt one-\ time the story of Henri Houard to publish excerpts from a book out of print, dating from 1957, written by Father P. Parquin, who was chaplain on board the auxiliary cruiser " X-17 "(pre-war" El Djezair. "With two other ships, the" El Mansour "and" El Kantara " the " X 17 "should participate in combat operations since 1939. These passages give us the opportunity to present additional pictures.

Since the campaign began, three El have been used for the navy, they were used in a convoy of troops to Beirut. A tragic accident at sea marked the beginning. In the night two trains collided. In the outburst of sirens, car horns hoarse screams, stamps chadburn, cries "Away all!" Buildings collide, sheets wrinkle and human bodies are crushed. The ship landed in Malta Chenonceaux fifteen dead and cons destroyer Vulture, whose rabota bridge, port side, the front of "El Djezair", had six serious injuries. Since then, our hull door, in the sheet metal building, a long scratch on the port bow, evocation of a night terror.

Linguistic sea

The father Parquin evokes the origin of names given to three ships. Recall that the word which the boat is adorned with bow and stern (El Djezair) is the Arabic term designating the city of Algiers. Linguists free to decline the different phases of the African word to reach the French noun. In our maritime style, the name of the boat, just about to be transformed into a diminutive, remained intact. At sea, its function taking precedence over the word Algerian, did appoint the Head of division: the "Admiral", an abbreviation of the generic term flagship ..

El Mansour means the great and beautiful. During the North African history, this term has been attributed to many sultans of Morocco. Besides Tlemcen are the ruins of the city of El Mansour. It had been built by a sultan of Morocco came to lay siege to Tlemcen. But he left his name. In the parlance of the division, the boat does change lives that Article Algerian "El" for the French translation of these two letters. C. Therefore, preventing the meeting of the two labial "L" and "M", ease of pronunciation unanimously decided the choice of the term The Mansour.

"X-16" El Kantara was named a Parade located in southern Algeria in the Sahara. near Biskra. The term Arab means the door of the desert.

A word of mouth capital

Come changes to the workings of Seyne previously described by Mr. Henry Houard. For Father Parquin he did not rule on board monastic silence …

The El Mansour is not to be outdone by the flagship. And, on the other side, the two destroyers on hold, and Sword Corsair, who displayed their bare fishbone not yet expanded, vibrate in their frames pointing skyward like organ pipes. Amidst all this din, and in all these vibrations, the one who can work at his office is privileged. All the boat comes to shake the fever so if you happen, by weariness to close their eyes, you can believe transported the dentist’s chair when you twist drill bits and the brain.

A Sunday, October 22, a pneumatic hammer, surely demonic, did not stop running around us, throughout the mass. For the songs, it was only the lesser evil. For the sermon, it was a disaster at least for my voice.

We talk all the same in this boat, but wide open mouth and into the whorl of the ear of your listener. The bottom of the corridor serving the cabins of the Majority (Staff), hear through two or three closed doors, someone who talks like a bridge in a storm:

- You see Commander, if we put that gun there on the bridge as shown in the plan, the room tear the floor from the first shell. We’ll have épontiller that bridge until the hold!

- That’s right, Admiral, Commander Carpenter screams confidence.

Shy maintenance which is a crucial challenge.

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The three "El" in a row. " El Mansour "at the bottom," El Kantara "between the two, and" El Djezair "in the foreground.

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An anti-aircraft machine gun on " El Djezair ".

Cadart division, made up of various vessels with auxiliary cruisers "El Djezair", "El Mansour" and "El Kantara," must, in April 1940, sailing from Brest to join the north of Norway and landed troops there. But the mission is canceled. On board, we wonder: other projects do they expect the division? This is the question answered here, officer " Trans " of "El Djezair" Mr. Henry Houard.

This question soon found an answer: what was the operation of Norway. He had cut off the German troops landed in the south who were heading north to protect the iron road. An ore mined in northern Sweden, indispensable to the German war industry. Of French and British troops were then landed at Narvik, including old acquaintances, "Cities of Algiers" and "City of Oran", the Transat.

The division Cadart, she was entrusted with a diversion on the German rear: landing of troops (Alpine troops) in the fjord Namsons, 100 nautical note of Trondheim. The embarkation of these troops and their equipment is made in Brest. The division sailed for Norway escorted by the destroyer against "Bison" and the light cruiser "Emile Bertin." "The poor guy" M Houard adds, referring to the Alpini had never seen the sea They did not embark. They had to carry on the ladder! "

Stuck in a fjord

Uneventful crossing. On arrival at nightfall, April 27, 1940, a Norwegian driver took over the convoy at the entrance of the fjord. The escorts were left on the outside to keep their freedom of maneuver. For the sailor accustomed to the vast horizons of the open sea, the entry and journey into the fjord gave the impression of being trapped Basically, a small town flirt grouped around its church, the people friendly and welcoming, Finally, a sense of calm and sweetness of life, far removed from war.

The landing took place in the nu t on a small wooden jetty where boats docked all three in turn. Then head out with a big "Whew!" Of relief.

The secrecy of the operation Namsos was well kept. Had they known, the Germans could attack by air, inside the fjord, away from DCA. It would have been a massacre. Taking back the convoy training, empty of troops, and zigzag road to Scapa Flow in Orkney away nets and the DCA of the English fleet.

The Germans attacked the fjord until the next day and subsequent days. The troops having been landed

unfold, the losses were insignificant. The village of Namsos, there remained a heap of ashes.

But the rest of our group to Scapa Flow was short lived. Indeed, the situation deteriorated rapidly in Norway. Division Cadart, always available, was shipped to Namsos to embark on May 3, not the French Alpine troops but British troops turned back by the Germans and completely demoralized.

The Namsos that we found in ruins a week later, Namsos dapper and welcoming that we had remembered. After a rembarquernent crash during the night, leaving the fjord took place at dawn. Training under convoy of British destroyers and road in Great Britain. That’s when things soured s.

The escort ships were there, faithful to the post. They devoted themselves to sudden changes because of enemy submarines had been reported. The attack came from heaven. The convoy was the target of Messerschmitt 109 fighter-bomber crashing in waves all day May 3. Either they had been lucky or they are very handy, they were able to maneuver to avoid the bombs, the three "El" fared intact. It was not the same for the escort: the "Bison" was sunk, the "Emile Bertlin" damaged by a bomb that had crossed from top to bottom without exploding. Several enemy planes were shot down.

At the front of "El Djezair", you can see the artillery platforms.

The old ships carrying British troops that they are repatriated. Under the protection of British destroyers, they are on Greenock Road.

Soon reached the 8 May 40: the rush of German mechanized divisions across Belgium, the breakthrough at Sedan, the siege of the Franco-British forces and Dunkirk. French troops are in England. In the hope, vain, to counteract the surging German forces in France, it was decided to bring them back to Brest. The three "El" was still available to provide transportation in part. Thus the "small and fast ships" found themselves in Brest at the beginning of June.

With current events, one could believe their military careers ended. It did not happen. In the general debacle, he had to save everything he could to save, and among other things, the gold of the Banque de France stored in forts around Brest. Again, the Division Cadart was put to use for transportation to Africa.

Gold in Dakar

For 48 hours, while everything that could float left Brest, sometimes jumping on magnetic mines by aircraft launched by the Germans, an endless stream of trucks requisitioned civilians, realized the clock moving boxes of bullion, since the strong up Wharf Lannion. At first, the trucks were escorted by riot police then, there remained the driver when the troops had evacuated the town.

Controller of the Bank of France was on hand to point out the crates. He boarded the El Djezair with them. The most extraordinary in all this is that with the exception of one case probably escaped from a net and fell into the water, there was no shortage!

Equipment on June 18, hours before the Germans arrived, with orders to reach Casablanca without escort protection. Uneventful crossing.

The Armistice was signed. Before the lusts that could cause the loading of the three "El", both by the Germans than English, it was decided to put the gold away in Dakar. And three "El" to sail again, still without protection and with orders to avoid English cruisers might be interested a little too close to the loading … It’s along the coast and closer to the shelter of a sand storm providential that limited visibility to a few miles (speed cameras did not exist at that time) that the Division reached its destination. She found the Richelieu left Brest a few days before it.

Gold could be landed and buried at Fort Thies, lost in the sands. where he remained until 1945. Thus ended the campaign of the Division Cadart. The ships were disarmed, the crews returned to their homes, except the necessary personnel to guard and security. Present in Dakar during the attack of 23, 24 and 25 September 1940, they have taken no part.

The three auxiliary cruisers were cited twice in the order of the Nation, during operations in Norway.

The finder of "El Djezair" discrete beacon signaling, was built on board, according to the plans of Henry Houard.

What happened to "El Djezair", "El Mansour" and "El Kantara" after traveling to Norway and then in Dakar in 1940, you indicated to finish.

The steamer "El Mansour" crossing the Mediterranean after the war (return to service date of August 15, 1948). He no longer has a fireplace as a result of its transformation in 1938.

Déréquisitionné November 16, 1940, after the events in Dakar, El Djezair wins Marseille with the two other El shipyards in the Mediterranean Seyne take charge of its restoration. With his brother El Mansour and El Kantara their eldest, he assures, in 1941 some connections with North Africa, then laid up at Marseilles, he took the sea in 1942.

Seized by the Germans in 1943, they yield to the Italians as the Casino. Retaken by the Germans at the end of that year, he is disarmed in the Thau lagoon. In June 144, during an Allied air bombardment, El Djezair receives bombs, burned and capsized.

The life of this brave nvire’re not completely finished because, in 1950, the wreck will be bailed out and sold in Italy. Recovered its machines will be transplanted to a new El

Rescue "Littoria"

The existence of her sister ship El Mansour will be much longer and happier. Built to sites from the Mediterranean to the Seine, commissioned in 1933, it will be for more than thirty years, one of the fastest ships in the Mediterranean and comfortable. El Mansour, weighing 5835 tx for a length of 122 m, will carry 383 passengers and its speed will be over 20 knots. He will know the Italian government praise for rescuing the crew of the seaplane Littoria and shells of Spanish Republicans in 1938.

During the war, he shared the fate of his younger El Djezair of the 1st division of auxiliary cruisers (DCX) and then was seized by the Germans in 1943. Italian as a moment then back Amagni German scuttled by them in August 1944 in the port of Marseille, salvaged in 1946, he underwent an overhaul in two years at La Ciotat.

From 1948 to 1963, when it was sold to the Navy, it will honor its flag, its owners and its shipyards. Navy turns it into basic building under the name of Maine, and he will therefore still in Tahiti, for the atomic bomb tests in the Pacific.

Two Chimneys low

In 1974, it will be delisted from the fleet and sunk by a cannon advised on April 3. The end of the boat as El Mansour goal sadden all lovers of ships, particularly those who are known.

The existence of the eldest of El will, too, very animated. El Kantara, built in 1932 at Swan Hunter shipyards in Britain, was in some ways the prototype of the series. Since its commissioning on-line Port-Vendres Algiers, its elegant silhouette, with its two low stacks and rear cruiser rallies all votes. Characteristics: 5080 tx, length 121 m, speed: over 20 knots, passengers: 360.

He released a grounding in 1936 with the help of his cousin El Mansour. In January 1943 he will also, before leaving the German authorities then shipped to Italy, April 23 following, Aquino (his new name) carrying troops from Livorno to Tunis, will be bombarded and burned by the Royal Air Force .

Rarely will a trio of ships had as much success with clients on both sides of the Mediterranean. The commissioning of these three El has symbolized the height of the mixed company of Navigation.

Readers wishing more details may refer to the book by Bernard Bernadac on the history of the Compagnie de Navigation Mixte.

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Lady Gaga

A few nice dating tips for men images I found:

Lady Gaga
dating tips for men

Image by Eva Rinaldi Celebrity and Live Music Photographer
Date of Birth
28 March 1986, Manhattan, New York City, New York, USA

Birth Name
Stefani Joanne Angelina Germanotta

Nickname
GaGa

Height
5′ 1" (1.55 m)

Trade Mark
Her hair bow.

Platnium blond hair.

Her futuristic outfits.

She carries a glow-in-the-dark disco stick during performances.

Rhythmic hooks and choruses

Always features two Great Danes in her music videos

Refers to all her fans as "Monsters"

Often portrays herself as a rebel in her videos

In her videos, she often ends up killing someone – usually her boyfriend

Various colored wigs

Her tattoos

Revealing outfits

Wild charismatic dancing

Trivia
Has three tattoos, one her on wrist, shoulder blade, and lower back.

Is of Italian descent.

Used to be a go-go dancer.

The album’s lead single, "Just Dance", was released on April 8, 2008 and had reached number one in five countries.

Went to the same school with Paris Hilton.

She has been influenced by Madonna, David Bowie, Judy Garland, Grace Jones, Cyndi Lauper, Freddie Mercury, Björk, Liza Minnelli, Yoko Ono, Britney Spears and Michael Jackson.

At seventeen, she was one of twenty people in the world to have gained early admission to the New York University’s Tisch School of the Arts.

Her stage name, Lady GaGa, is a reference to the song "Radio Ga-Ga" by Queen.

Interscope music executive Vincent Herbert hired her in January 2008 as a music writer.

She states that she is "very into fashion" and that it is "everything".

Her song "Boys, Boys, Boys" was inspired by Mötley Crüe’s hit "Girls, Girls, Girls".

She learned how to play the piano at the age of four, wrote her first piano ballad at 13, and began performing at open mic nights by the age of 14.

Her parents are Joseph, an Internet entrepreneur, and Cynthia, a telecommunications assistant.

She makes mention of the band, The Killers, in her song "Boys, Boys, Boys".

On February 20, 2009, she donated tickets and a meet and greet, for any show on her Fame Ball tour, in the US or Canada, to raise money for Odyssey Charter School and elementary schools in Los Angeles affected by budget cuts.

Has a younger sister.

Is a natural brunette.

Attended Sacred Heart School, a private Catholic school in New York City. Her classmates included Paris Hilton and Nicky Hilton.

Bleached her hair blonde in light of the fact that she was being mistaken for Amy Winehouse by interviewers while trying to make it big.

Has a contralto vocal range.

Her song "Telephone" was originally written for Britney Spears’s sixth album Circus. However, after it failed to make the album’s final track listing, Gaga recorded the song as a collaboration with ‘Beyonce Knowles’ for her second album, The Fame Monster.

Is a big fan of Britney Spears.

Made the cover of Time magazine’s double issue – The 100 Most Influential People in the World – alongside Bill Clinton and Didier Drogba. In the magazine’s "Artists" category (which she headed), the singer’s tribute was written by Cyndi Lauper. [May 10, 2010]

Is good friends with Deepak Chopra and has stated he is one of the most influential people in her life because of the spiritual guidance he gives her.

In high school, one of her nicknames was "The Germ".

A staunch supporter of LGBT Rights.

Her sister Natali once dressed as her for Halloween.

Her album "Born This Way" (2011) sold over 1 million copies in the first week. Amazon sold 440,000 copies of the album in its first two days at a price of 99 cents (at a loss of over million). This contributed to the album’s 662,000 digital sales. However, in the second week the album experienced an 84% sales decrease and a 94% digital sales drop. In it’s third week the album had a 42% sales decrease and, in the fourth week sales of of the album decreased by another 33%.

Her second album "Born This Way" (2011) is the seventh album to sell 1 million copies in 1 week. Gaga is the 5th woman to sell 1 million album copies in a week, after Whitney Houston, Britney Spears, Norah Jones and Taylor Swift.

Ranked #99 in the 2011 FHM list of "100 Sexiest Women". Ranked #92 in the 2010 FHM list of "100 Sexiest Women".

Personal Quotes
On Donatella Versace: She’s iconic and powerful, yet people throw darts at her. She’s definitely provocative.

Some artists are working to buy the mansion or whatever the element of fame must bear, but I spend all my money on my show.

I was the arty girl, the theatre chick. I dressed differently and I came from a different social class from the other girls. I was more of an average schoolgirl with a cork.

On her style: My grandmother is basically blind, but she can make out the lighter parts, like my skin and hair. She says, "I can see you, because you have no pants on." So I’ll continue to wear no pants so that my grandma can see me.

You must never ever let a guy know how much you like him, because then he’ll run in the other direction … Well, I just sign that when you don’t play hard to get, if you’re too easy or you come off too eager, they run away so you gotta keep your pokerface on.

I love Dolce & Gabbana. I love Versace. I love the crazy, more eccentric stuff. I can’t pay my rent, but I’m f—ing gorgeous.

I dropped out of NYU, moved out of my parent’s house, got my own place, and survived on my own. I made music and worked my way from the bottom up. I didn’t know somebody, who knew somebody, who knew somebody. If I have any advice to anybody, it’s to just do it yourself, and don’t waste time trying to get a favor.

Writing a record is like dating a few men at once. You take them to the same restaurants to see if they measure up, and at some point you decide who you like best. When you make music or write or create, it’s really your job to have mind-blowing, irresponsible, condomless sex with whatever idea it is you’re writing about at the time.

My album covers are not sexual at all, which was an issue at my record label. I fought for months, and I cried at meetings. They didn’t think the photos were commercial enough… In my opinion, the last thing a young woman needs is another picture of a sexy pop star writhing in sand, covered in grease, touching herself.

[on Britney Spears] Britney’s a real class act in terms of the way she handles herself in the media and embraces new artists. She’s always really kind, I’ve always admired that about her.

[on Britney Spears] It was awesome seeing the song change when she put her touches on it. I’m just really grateful that she loves the music and she’s so supportive of me. She’s a fan of my stuff and to write a song that she loves and to know she loves me as an artist, you can’t ask for anything better than that.

[on Britney Spears] She’s gonna kick everybody’s ass. She’s awesome, as far as I’m concerned Britney never left.

[on writing the song Quicksand for Britney Spears] She was very sweet and she was very excited to do this song. It’s an honor to do anything for Britney Spears – she is such an iconic pop figure for my generation.

I am not sexy in the way that Britney Spears is sexy – which is a compliment to her because she’s deliciously good-looking.

[on writing songs for Britney Spears] She’s a nice girl – I just feel very honored that she wanted to sing my song. I used to scream for her in Times Square and now I work for her. When I was 13 she was the most provocative performer of my time. I love her so much!

[on Britney Spears] Britney certainly doesn’t need any freaking tips from me! Britney Spears is the queen of pop. I was learning from her.

I would rather die than have my fans not see me in a pair of high heels. I’d never give up my wigs or hats for anything. You see legendary people taking out their trash, I think it’s destroying show business.

[about her experience at school] I had a very big nose, very curly brown hair and I was overweight. I got made fun of.

Pop music will never be low brow.

[on how to be glamorous for a photo shoot] Just look straight into that lens and be yourself.

Be yourself and love who you are and be proud. Because you were born this way baby.

People assume that when I’m off stage I transform back into someone else. But I truly believe in the glamorous lifestyle that I present to the outside world. I love glamor. A glamorous life is quite different to a life of luxury. I don’t need luxury. For years I was practically broke but I was still vain and glamorous.

[on Freddie Mercury]: Freddie was unique – one of the biggest personalities in the whole of pop music.

Everywhere I go a Gaga fairy has been there before me and left a cupboard full of wonderful clothes that I’m allowed to borrow and wear. When I move on to the next city, the next cupboard is waiting. I haven’t been shopping myself for over a year now.

She is the queen, Madonna is the queen. I have so much adoration for her. Being compared to her is unbelievably flattering, but in truth there is no one that can compare with Madonna. She is the queen!

First thing in the morning, try to think compassionate thoughts about yourself for five minutes. I don’t always do it, but I try to.

[on sleeping with her makeup still on] I’ve got to wash my face at some point. I do get laughed at quite a bit by all my friends because they say I go to sleep a lot with my make-up on. But I say that I have to be ready for the men in my dreams!

They’d say, ‘Why do you do your make-up like that, what’s with your eyebrows?’ I used to do these really big Evita brows. I used to self-tan, and I had this really intense tan in school, and people would say, ‘Why the fuck are you so orange, why do you do your hair that way, are you a dyke?’ I used to be called a slut… I didn’t even want to go to school sometimes.

Lady Gaga
dating tips for men

Image by Eva Rinaldi Celebrity and Live Music Photographer
Date of Birth
28 March 1986, Manhattan, New York City, New York, USA

Birth Name
Stefani Joanne Angelina Germanotta

Nickname
GaGa

Height
5′ 1" (1.55 m)

Trade Mark
Her hair bow.

Platnium blond hair.

Her futuristic outfits.

She carries a glow-in-the-dark disco stick during performances.

Rhythmic hooks and choruses

Always features two Great Danes in her music videos

Refers to all her fans as "Monsters"

Often portrays herself as a rebel in her videos

In her videos, she often ends up killing someone – usually her boyfriend

Various colored wigs

Her tattoos

Revealing outfits

Wild charismatic dancing

Trivia
Has three tattoos, one her on wrist, shoulder blade, and lower back.

Is of Italian descent.

Used to be a go-go dancer.

The album’s lead single, "Just Dance", was released on April 8, 2008 and had reached number one in five countries.

Went to the same school with Paris Hilton.

She has been influenced by Madonna, David Bowie, Judy Garland, Grace Jones, Cyndi Lauper, Freddie Mercury, Björk, Liza Minnelli, Yoko Ono, Britney Spears and Michael Jackson.

At seventeen, she was one of twenty people in the world to have gained early admission to the New York University’s Tisch School of the Arts.

Her stage name, Lady GaGa, is a reference to the song "Radio Ga-Ga" by Queen.

Interscope music executive Vincent Herbert hired her in January 2008 as a music writer.

She states that she is "very into fashion" and that it is "everything".

Her song "Boys, Boys, Boys" was inspired by Mötley Crüe’s hit "Girls, Girls, Girls".

She learned how to play the piano at the age of four, wrote her first piano ballad at 13, and began performing at open mic nights by the age of 14.

Her parents are Joseph, an Internet entrepreneur, and Cynthia, a telecommunications assistant.

She makes mention of the band, The Killers, in her song "Boys, Boys, Boys".

On February 20, 2009, she donated tickets and a meet and greet, for any show on her Fame Ball tour, in the US or Canada, to raise money for Odyssey Charter School and elementary schools in Los Angeles affected by budget cuts.

Has a younger sister.

Is a natural brunette.

Attended Sacred Heart School, a private Catholic school in New York City. Her classmates included Paris Hilton and Nicky Hilton.

Bleached her hair blonde in light of the fact that she was being mistaken for Amy Winehouse by interviewers while trying to make it big.

Has a contralto vocal range.

Her song "Telephone" was originally written for Britney Spears’s sixth album Circus. However, after it failed to make the album’s final track listing, Gaga recorded the song as a collaboration with ‘Beyonce Knowles’ for her second album, The Fame Monster.

Is a big fan of Britney Spears.

Made the cover of Time magazine’s double issue – The 100 Most Influential People in the World – alongside Bill Clinton and Didier Drogba. In the magazine’s "Artists" category (which she headed), the singer’s tribute was written by Cyndi Lauper. [May 10, 2010]

Is good friends with Deepak Chopra and has stated he is one of the most influential people in her life because of the spiritual guidance he gives her.

In high school, one of her nicknames was "The Germ".

A staunch supporter of LGBT Rights.

Her sister Natali once dressed as her for Halloween.

Her album "Born This Way" (2011) sold over 1 million copies in the first week. Amazon sold 440,000 copies of the album in its first two days at a price of 99 cents (at a loss of over million). This contributed to the album’s 662,000 digital sales. However, in the second week the album experienced an 84% sales decrease and a 94% digital sales drop. In it’s third week the album had a 42% sales decrease and, in the fourth week sales of of the album decreased by another 33%.

Her second album "Born This Way" (2011) is the seventh album to sell 1 million copies in 1 week. Gaga is the 5th woman to sell 1 million album copies in a week, after Whitney Houston, Britney Spears, Norah Jones and Taylor Swift.

Ranked #99 in the 2011 FHM list of "100 Sexiest Women". Ranked #92 in the 2010 FHM list of "100 Sexiest Women".

Personal Quotes
On Donatella Versace: She’s iconic and powerful, yet people throw darts at her. She’s definitely provocative.

Some artists are working to buy the mansion or whatever the element of fame must bear, but I spend all my money on my show.

I was the arty girl, the theatre chick. I dressed differently and I came from a different social class from the other girls. I was more of an average schoolgirl with a cork.

On her style: My grandmother is basically blind, but she can make out the lighter parts, like my skin and hair. She says, "I can see you, because you have no pants on." So I’ll continue to wear no pants so that my grandma can see me.

You must never ever let a guy know how much you like him, because then he’ll run in the other direction … Well, I just sign that when you don’t play hard to get, if you’re too easy or you come off too eager, they run away so you gotta keep your pokerface on.

I love Dolce & Gabbana. I love Versace. I love the crazy, more eccentric stuff. I can’t pay my rent, but I’m f—ing gorgeous.

I dropped out of NYU, moved out of my parent’s house, got my own place, and survived on my own. I made music and worked my way from the bottom up. I didn’t know somebody, who knew somebody, who knew somebody. If I have any advice to anybody, it’s to just do it yourself, and don’t waste time trying to get a favor.

Writing a record is like dating a few men at once. You take them to the same restaurants to see if they measure up, and at some point you decide who you like best. When you make music or write or create, it’s really your job to have mind-blowing, irresponsible, condomless sex with whatever idea it is you’re writing about at the time.

My album covers are not sexual at all, which was an issue at my record label. I fought for months, and I cried at meetings. They didn’t think the photos were commercial enough… In my opinion, the last thing a young woman needs is another picture of a sexy pop star writhing in sand, covered in grease, touching herself.

[on Britney Spears] Britney’s a real class act in terms of the way she handles herself in the media and embraces new artists. She’s always really kind, I’ve always admired that about her.

[on Britney Spears] It was awesome seeing the song change when she put her touches on it. I’m just really grateful that she loves the music and she’s so supportive of me. She’s a fan of my stuff and to write a song that she loves and to know she loves me as an artist, you can’t ask for anything better than that.

[on Britney Spears] She’s gonna kick everybody’s ass. She’s awesome, as far as I’m concerned Britney never left.

[on writing the song Quicksand for Britney Spears] She was very sweet and she was very excited to do this song. It’s an honor to do anything for Britney Spears – she is such an iconic pop figure for my generation.

I am not sexy in the way that Britney Spears is sexy – which is a compliment to her because she’s deliciously good-looking.

[on writing songs for Britney Spears] She’s a nice girl – I just feel very honored that she wanted to sing my song. I used to scream for her in Times Square and now I work for her. When I was 13 she was the most provocative performer of my time. I love her so much!

[on Britney Spears] Britney certainly doesn’t need any freaking tips from me! Britney Spears is the queen of pop. I was learning from her.

I would rather die than have my fans not see me in a pair of high heels. I’d never give up my wigs or hats for anything. You see legendary people taking out their trash, I think it’s destroying show business.

[about her experience at school] I had a very big nose, very curly brown hair and I was overweight. I got made fun of.

Pop music will never be low brow.

[on how to be glamorous for a photo shoot] Just look straight into that lens and be yourself.

Be yourself and love who you are and be proud. Because you were born this way baby.

People assume that when I’m off stage I transform back into someone else. But I truly believe in the glamorous lifestyle that I present to the outside world. I love glamor. A glamorous life is quite different to a life of luxury. I don’t need luxury. For years I was practically broke but I was still vain and glamorous.

[on Freddie Mercury]: Freddie was unique – one of the biggest personalities in the whole of pop music.

Everywhere I go a Gaga fairy has been there before me and left a cupboard full of wonderful clothes that I’m allowed to borrow and wear. When I move on to the next city, the next cupboard is waiting. I haven’t been shopping myself for over a year now.

She is the queen, Madonna is the queen. I have so much adoration for her. Being compared to her is unbelievably flattering, but in truth there is no one that can compare with Madonna. She is the queen!

First thing in the morning, try to think compassionate thoughts about yourself for five minutes. I don’t always do it, but I try to.

[on sleeping with her makeup still on] I’ve got to wash my face at some point. I do get laughed at quite a bit by all my friends because they say I go to sleep a lot with my make-up on. But I say that I have to be ready for the men in my dreams!

They’d say, ‘Why do you do your make-up like that, what’s with your eyebrows?’ I used to do these really big Evita brows. I used to self-tan, and I had this really intense tan in school, and people would say, ‘Why the fuck are you so orange, why do you do your hair that way, are you a dyke?’ I used to be called a slut… I didn’t even want to go to school sometimes.

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Nice Dating Tips For Men photos

Check out these dating tips for men images:

Michael Bublé
dating tips for men

Image by Eva Rinaldi Celebrity and Live Music Photographer
Birth Name
Michael Steven Bublé

Height
5′ 10½" (1.79 m)

Mini Biography
Multi-platinum artist Michael Bublé grew up near Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. He was introduced to swing music and old standards by his grandfather, who offered his services for free as a professional plumber to musicians who were willing to let Michael sing a couple of songs with them on stage.

He got his big break in show business after former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney discovered his music. At 10 years of struggling, the discovery came at a time when distraught Michael was considering giving up a career in music and getting a job in media. His performance at a corporate gig in summer 2000 impressed Michael McSweeney, speech writer/right hand man to Brian Mulroney, and told Mcsweeney to feel free to use his independent CD as a coaster if he didn’t like it. Mcsweeney gave the CD to Brian & Mila Mulroney, which led to an invitation to sing at their daughter’s wedding, where he was introduced to music producer David Foster, who took him under his wing.

His self-titled debut album came out February 12, 2003 and has since won several music awards and incredible worldwide success.

IMDb Mini Biography By: Janie Michaud

Spouse
Luisana Lopilato (31 March 2011 – present)

Trade Mark
Ends his concerts by singing without a microphone

Trivia
Won Best New Artist at the Canadian Juno Awards (April, 2004)

Older brother of Crystal Buble.

Last name is pronounced "Boo-blay".

In September 2003, sang at "Blue Note" Jazz Club, in Manhattan’s Greenwich Village, New York City.

Is an international singing sensation. He has gone multi-platinum in over 15 countries. In 2005, he traveled the world over a dozen times, performing sold-out shows throughout the U.S., Europe (including a sold-out performance at the prestigious London’s Royal Albert Hall), Asia, and Australia. His self-titled debut went multi-platinum, and his multi-platinum CD, "It’s Time" (which included the No. 1 Buble-penned smash single "Home") sold over 5.5 million CDs worldwide. As of October 2006, "It’s Time" went 6 times Platinum in Canada, 4 times Platinum in Australia and Italy, double Platinum in Singapore and USA. Platinum in the UK, Austria, Germany, Holland, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Ireland, Switzerland, Taiwan and South Africa. Gold status in Belgium, France, Philippines, Sweden and Thailand. As of 2007, "It’s Time" remained on the Billboard Traditional Jazz Albums Charts for a staggering two years and in the No. 1 slot for over 80 weeks, holding the all time record for highest number of weeks at No. 1 by any artist. The internationally acclaimed hit original song "Home" reached No. 1 on charts in more than 10 countries, including Japan, Canada and Italy. "It’s Time" was nominated for 2 Grammy Awards and was the Bestselling Traditional Jazz Album of 2005.

His self-penned single, "Home" has the distinction of being the most-heard song on Canadian radio in 2005, reaching an audience estimated to exceed 382 million people.

Received two Genie Award nominations in 2000 for songs he wrote for the film Here’s to Life! (2000) starring Eric McCormack.

His debut self-titled CD released in 2003 hit the best-selling charts in more than 15 countries and went Quadruple Platinum in Canada.

Won 4 Juno Awards (2006) for Best Single of the Year "Home", Best Album of the Year "It’s Time", Best Artist of the Year, and Best Pop Album of the Year "It’s Time".

Won 3 Canadian Smooth Jazz Awards (2006) for Male Vocalist of the Year, Album of the Year "It’s Time", and Best Original Composition "Home".

When Michael’s 2006 Valentine’s Day EP – "With Love, Michael Buble"- was released only for a week, the album reached Gold status selling 500,000 copies. The album also became the biggest selling CD Hallmark has ever released, selling in excess of 3 million copies.

[19 January 2007] His album It’s Time broke the all time record for highest number of weeks at number 1 by any artist. It’s Time spent 76 weeks in the number 1 spot on Billboard’s Top Traditional Jazz Albums Charts. According to the Nielsan Soundscan charts, which tracks weekly industry sales in America, both the Traditional Jazz Album and the Current Jazz Album charts lists It’s Time at an amazing total of 101 weeks on the charts with sales exceeding 2.2 million to date.

Is of Italian descent. He has dual Italian-Canadian citizenship. He has stated that his last name is actually from his Italian ancestry. Part of his family is from Treviso (in northern Italy), and the other part of his family is from Villa Santa Lucia degli Abruzzi, Italy. His grandfather Demetrio "Mitch" Santagà comes from the village of Preganziol, Italy.

During preparation for his daughter’s wedding, Brian Mulroney was hesitant to listen to Buble’s CD, given by Mulroney’s speech writer Michael McSweeney after a corporate gig, because the wedding had a long list of entertainment. However, it was Brian’s wife, Mila, who told him to listen to the CD and include Buble in the entertainment list, after which Buble was invited to sing in front of wedding guest David Foster, who later produced Buble’s self-titled album.

In 1996, he landed a role as Elvis in the Vancouver run of a Rock and Roll musical revue called Red Rock Diner, where he became friends with Debbie Timuss, a stage actress, dancer and singer who taught him the choreography. Two years later they became an item and moved to Toronto as part of the cast of another musical revue, this time a big band musical revue called Forever Swing. The hit single "Home" from the album It’s Time was written for Debbie Timuss, whom Bublé has had a near decade long off-again-on-again relationship. Having gotten back together from one of their breakups and away in Italy on tour, he penned "Home" for Timuss, describing his pain from being away from her. She is the song’s background vocalist and is featured in the song’s music video. He referred the album It’s Time as "Debbie’s Record", and a few of the tracks on It’s Time was recorded while he sang to her as she sat outside the studio. They became formally engaged pre-Christmastime 2004 and called off the engagement November 2005.

His father Lewis is a salmon fisherman and his mother, Amber, raised him and his two younger sisters.

At 18, Bublé entered a talent contest in a local bar even though the rules stipulated contestants had to be 19. After he won, the organizer, a local publicist and entrepreneur named Beverly Delich, disqualified him but was so impressed by his talent that she later called him at his parents’ home and suggested he enter the British Columbia Youth Talent Search. He won, and Delich then helped him record an independent CD.

On March 19 2007, his self-penned single "Everything", from album Call Me Irresponsible, made the highest debut in the history of the BDS AC (adult contemporary) charts. In its first week at Canadian radio, "Everything" debuted at #3 on the BDS Mainstream AC Audience chart, and a week later it reached #1 Airplay. Also in its first week, it was aired over 300 times on 43 Radio Stations, reaching an estimated audience in Canada of over 5.2 million listeners.

[2005] The U.S. Billboard ranks "It’s Time" as the Best Selling Jazz recording of 2005 and chose him as the #1 Jazz Artist.

[2005] His self-penned single "Home" reached #1 at Pop and AC radio in Canada and #1 at AC radio in the United States.

A long-time devoted hockey fan of the Vancouver Canucks. Watches Canucks games on his laptop when he is not in British Columbia; never misses any of the games.

The original song "Lost" (from album Call Me Irresponsible) is the sequel to his hit single "Home" (from album It’s Time). While in Australia, Bublé co-wrote "Lost" during the process of ending his eight year relationship to Debbie Timuss, whom he had previously written "Home" for while still together. "Lost" was written as a tribute to his former relationship to Timuss. Before "Lost" was released, Bublé played the song to Timuss. However, his current girlfriend Emily Blunt is the inspiration to the original single "Everything" (from album Call Me Irresponsible).

First met Emily Blunt at the Australian Logie Awards in 2005 and again a few months later backstage with a group of people at his Los Angeles concert.

His grandfather was a plumber who, whenever he fixed something at a nightclub or something like that, did it for free if the owners allowed Bublé to sing there.

Dean Regan’s touring musical, "Forever Swing", was a major factor in launching his early career. His starring role in "Forever Swing" gained huge praise by both fans and critics throughout Canada and the United States.

"Everything", the first hit single from the 2007 album Call Me Irresponsible, boasts the fastest trip to Number 1 in three years on Billboards Adult Contemporary chart.

By December 2004, his self-titled debut album sold over three million worldwide including seven times platinum in Australia, three times platinum in Canada, twice platinum in the United Kingdom, South Africa, Italy, New Zealand and the Philippines, and gold status in Indonesia, Malaysia, Spain, Taiwan and Hong Kong.

Set the record in 2005 at The Sydney Opera House for the most tickets sold in one day ever.

By 2004, he had sold-out engagements throughout Europe, Australia, and Asia, including 3-night sold out shows at the Sydney Opera House’s Concert Hall in April and sold-out an unprecedented 9 shows across Australia; in November 2004, he completed 16 sell-outs in the U.K. alone, most notably two SROs at London’s prestigious Royal Albert Hall.

2007 Grammy Award-nomination: Best Traditional Pop Vocal Album for "Caught in the Act".

2006 Grammy Award-nominations: Best Traditional Pop Vocal Album for "It’s Time", Best Instrumental Arrangement Accompanying Vocalist for the song "Can’t Buy Me Love".

Worked with his salmon fisherman father for six years. On fishing days, which normally began from 4:30am to 11pm with physically demanding work, he would listen on the boat to music tapes of classic standards made for him not by his father, an ardent Bruce Springsteen fan, but by his Italian-born grandfather.

Jobs as a showman included talent shows, conventions, cruise ships, hotel lounges, smoky bars, clubs, corporate gigs, singing telegram messenger, and musical theatre.

Won 2008 Grammy Award: Best Traditional Pop Vocal Album for "Call Me Irresponsible". Nomination: Best Male Pop Vocal Performance for the song "Everything".

Won a 2006 MuchMoreMusic Award for "Save The Last Dance For Me".

On May 16 2007, Call Me Irresponsible was the #1 best selling album in Canada, Australia, South Africa, Europe, Singapore, and the USA. Call Me Irresponsible also reached #1 on the Billboard’s Sales Charts, Internet, Traditional Jazz and Pop charts.

Sang at a wedding for only the second time when he headlined the entertainment at the million wedding of James Packer, Australia’s richest man, and Erica Baxter in France on June 2007. The first time he performed at a wedding was for the Canadian Prime Minister’s daughter in 2000, where he got a record deal.

Sold out 11 shows in a single day when he toured Australia in 2005.

Won two Canadian Smooth Jazz Awards (2008): Male Vocalist of the Year & Best Original Composition of the Year "Everything".

Won 2008 Juno Fan Choice Award. 2008 Juno Nominations: Single of the Year "Everything", Album of the Year "Call Me Irresponsible", Artist of the Year, and Pop Album of the Year "Call Me Irresponsible".

2008 German ECHO Award nomination in category International Pop/Rock Male Artist of the Year.

2008 Brit Awards nomination for Best International Male Solo Artist.

Won 2005 World Music Award for category World’s Best Selling Artist/Canada. 2005 World Music Award nomination for World’s Best Selling Pop Male Artist.

Won 2006 Canadian Radio Music Awards for Best New Solo Artist (Hot AC category – song "Home") & SOCAN Songwriter of the Year for the song "Home".

Won 2006 German ECHO Award for National/International Jazz Production of the Year – "It’s Time". 2006 ECHO Nomination for International Newcomer of the Year.

Broke up with longtime girlfriend Emily Blunt in July 2008. They had been together since 2005.

According to an "Oprah" interview on October 9, 2009, Bublé had dreamed of becoming famous since age two. When he was a teenager, he slept with his bible and prayed to become a singer. The first time that his family noticed his singing talent was at Christmas time when Bublé was 13 years old, and they heard him singing along with them to the song "White Christmas" during a car ride.

Frequently closes his concerts by singing without a microphone. This all began when his microphone went out during one of his L.A. concerts when he was in the middle of singing "My Funny Valentine", the show’s big finishing number. Without missing a beat, Alan Chang, Bublé’s pianist, kept playing his piano, and Bublé did an acoustic version of "My Funny Valentine" that brought down the house.

Engaged to Luisana Lopilato.

Brother-in-law of ‘Dario Lopilato’.

Personal Quotes
You can try to trick the people and come out wearing a fedora and a tuxedo but that’s not me. I was born in the late ’70s, I wear jeans. I don’t hang out in casinos. The lifestyle isn’t my thing. I don’t drink martinis and I don’t smoke cigars.

[His words to Michael McSweeney when he gave him his independent CD in his pre-stardom days]: "If you and your wife like it, great. If you don’t, it’ll make a great coaster".

[About his last name Bublé]: Sounds French, but I’m a very proud Canadian of Italian extraction.

I’ve said it a million times: I would love very much to be known as one of the great entertainers. If that’s me having a big ego, then sorry. I’m shooting for the stars, and if I miss I’ll hit the moon and that’s pretty high.

[About covering songs]: "It’s far more difficult for me to cover a song because you can compare that song with another 400 iconic artists who have recorded it. So it’s my job to take it to a different place. And as an interpreter, I take it really seriously. When I’m remaking a song, I’m aware that I’m not here to sing the song better than Frank Sinatra or if I cover Van Morrison or I cover The Eagles, my job isn’t to sing it better, my job is to make it my own".

[About covering songs versus original music]: "The reason I won’t do all originals is because it is more of a challenge for me to take great songs and to reinterpret them and make them new again. It’s what I do. It’s always what I’ve done and had a passion for."

I don’t just want to cover a song because it’s easy, like ‘Fly Me to the Moon.’ I like that song. It’s a great song. But I don’t want to cover it just because it’s one of the most popular standards. I wanted to take chances and record songs that I thought I could breathe new life into.

I am a candid interview and I have a dark and dry sense of humor – a very Canadian sense of humor and I am only learning now stupidly that you can’t read tongue. When I say something funny in a newspaper and I meant it to be funny, it doesn’t read that way. It is the same if you have ever gotten an e-mail and you think, ‘What did I ever do to make this person respond this way?’ They never meant to be aggressive, but you can’t read the tone. I’ve said things. There were comments about many things I wish I would have said in a different way or a more eloquent way.

[About his former job as a singing telegram messenger]: "Ten out of 11 times they wouldn’t [tip]. They’d say, ‘I want you to sing it louder.’ And I’d be, ‘But it’s a ballad.’"

[About singing jazz music] "I don’t want to be a copycat. What you see is who I am. It’s just me and how I grew up and what I thought was cool. There was always something special about that music to me. It just stood out. I always felt like I was born in the wrong time."

[on becoming successful]: "People told me time and time again that I will not get signed up, that I will never sell record, that I should sing pop and that I would be better off joining the Backstreet Boys. But I have faith in who I am, and in this style of music (jazz). So when people continued to tell me that I couldn’t do it, it just made me feel that I had to prove them wrong."

It offends me when people think I only listen to Frank Sinatra. I was born in 1975 and I never wanted to be part of the Rat Pack. As a kid, my biggest idol was Michael Jackson. As a teenager, I wanted to be one of the Beastie Boys.

When I did my first album, I was marketed as the singer who would appeal to your grandma. But as each record arrived with more power and confidence, I began to sound younger and younger.

Michael Bublé
dating tips for men

Image by Eva Rinaldi Celebrity and Live Music Photographer
Birth Name
Michael Steven Bublé

Height
5′ 10½" (1.79 m)

Mini Biography
Multi-platinum artist Michael Bublé grew up near Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. He was introduced to swing music and old standards by his grandfather, who offered his services for free as a professional plumber to musicians who were willing to let Michael sing a couple of songs with them on stage.

He got his big break in show business after former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney discovered his music. At 10 years of struggling, the discovery came at a time when distraught Michael was considering giving up a career in music and getting a job in media. His performance at a corporate gig in summer 2000 impressed Michael McSweeney, speech writer/right hand man to Brian Mulroney, and told Mcsweeney to feel free to use his independent CD as a coaster if he didn’t like it. Mcsweeney gave the CD to Brian & Mila Mulroney, which led to an invitation to sing at their daughter’s wedding, where he was introduced to music producer David Foster, who took him under his wing.

His self-titled debut album came out February 12, 2003 and has since won several music awards and incredible worldwide success.

IMDb Mini Biography By: Janie Michaud

Spouse
Luisana Lopilato (31 March 2011 – present)

Trade Mark
Ends his concerts by singing without a microphone

Trivia
Won Best New Artist at the Canadian Juno Awards (April, 2004)

Older brother of Crystal Buble.

Last name is pronounced "Boo-blay".

In September 2003, sang at "Blue Note" Jazz Club, in Manhattan’s Greenwich Village, New York City.

Is an international singing sensation. He has gone multi-platinum in over 15 countries. In 2005, he traveled the world over a dozen times, performing sold-out shows throughout the U.S., Europe (including a sold-out performance at the prestigious London’s Royal Albert Hall), Asia, and Australia. His self-titled debut went multi-platinum, and his multi-platinum CD, "It’s Time" (which included the No. 1 Buble-penned smash single "Home") sold over 5.5 million CDs worldwide. As of October 2006, "It’s Time" went 6 times Platinum in Canada, 4 times Platinum in Australia and Italy, double Platinum in Singapore and USA. Platinum in the UK, Austria, Germany, Holland, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Ireland, Switzerland, Taiwan and South Africa. Gold status in Belgium, France, Philippines, Sweden and Thailand. As of 2007, "It’s Time" remained on the Billboard Traditional Jazz Albums Charts for a staggering two years and in the No. 1 slot for over 80 weeks, holding the all time record for highest number of weeks at No. 1 by any artist. The internationally acclaimed hit original song "Home" reached No. 1 on charts in more than 10 countries, including Japan, Canada and Italy. "It’s Time" was nominated for 2 Grammy Awards and was the Bestselling Traditional Jazz Album of 2005.

His self-penned single, "Home" has the distinction of being the most-heard song on Canadian radio in 2005, reaching an audience estimated to exceed 382 million people.

Received two Genie Award nominations in 2000 for songs he wrote for the film Here’s to Life! (2000) starring Eric McCormack.

His debut self-titled CD released in 2003 hit the best-selling charts in more than 15 countries and went Quadruple Platinum in Canada.

Won 4 Juno Awards (2006) for Best Single of the Year "Home", Best Album of the Year "It’s Time", Best Artist of the Year, and Best Pop Album of the Year "It’s Time".

Won 3 Canadian Smooth Jazz Awards (2006) for Male Vocalist of the Year, Album of the Year "It’s Time", and Best Original Composition "Home".

When Michael’s 2006 Valentine’s Day EP – "With Love, Michael Buble"- was released only for a week, the album reached Gold status selling 500,000 copies. The album also became the biggest selling CD Hallmark has ever released, selling in excess of 3 million copies.

[19 January 2007] His album It’s Time broke the all time record for highest number of weeks at number 1 by any artist. It’s Time spent 76 weeks in the number 1 spot on Billboard’s Top Traditional Jazz Albums Charts. According to the Nielsan Soundscan charts, which tracks weekly industry sales in America, both the Traditional Jazz Album and the Current Jazz Album charts lists It’s Time at an amazing total of 101 weeks on the charts with sales exceeding 2.2 million to date.

Is of Italian descent. He has dual Italian-Canadian citizenship. He has stated that his last name is actually from his Italian ancestry. Part of his family is from Treviso (in northern Italy), and the other part of his family is from Villa Santa Lucia degli Abruzzi, Italy. His grandfather Demetrio "Mitch" Santagà comes from the village of Preganziol, Italy.

During preparation for his daughter’s wedding, Brian Mulroney was hesitant to listen to Buble’s CD, given by Mulroney’s speech writer Michael McSweeney after a corporate gig, because the wedding had a long list of entertainment. However, it was Brian’s wife, Mila, who told him to listen to the CD and include Buble in the entertainment list, after which Buble was invited to sing in front of wedding guest David Foster, who later produced Buble’s self-titled album.

In 1996, he landed a role as Elvis in the Vancouver run of a Rock and Roll musical revue called Red Rock Diner, where he became friends with Debbie Timuss, a stage actress, dancer and singer who taught him the choreography. Two years later they became an item and moved to Toronto as part of the cast of another musical revue, this time a big band musical revue called Forever Swing. The hit single "Home" from the album It’s Time was written for Debbie Timuss, whom Bublé has had a near decade long off-again-on-again relationship. Having gotten back together from one of their breakups and away in Italy on tour, he penned "Home" for Timuss, describing his pain from being away from her. She is the song’s background vocalist and is featured in the song’s music video. He referred the album It’s Time as "Debbie’s Record", and a few of the tracks on It’s Time was recorded while he sang to her as she sat outside the studio. They became formally engaged pre-Christmastime 2004 and called off the engagement November 2005.

His father Lewis is a salmon fisherman and his mother, Amber, raised him and his two younger sisters.

At 18, Bublé entered a talent contest in a local bar even though the rules stipulated contestants had to be 19. After he won, the organizer, a local publicist and entrepreneur named Beverly Delich, disqualified him but was so impressed by his talent that she later called him at his parents’ home and suggested he enter the British Columbia Youth Talent Search. He won, and Delich then helped him record an independent CD.

On March 19 2007, his self-penned single "Everything", from album Call Me Irresponsible, made the highest debut in the history of the BDS AC (adult contemporary) charts. In its first week at Canadian radio, "Everything" debuted at #3 on the BDS Mainstream AC Audience chart, and a week later it reached #1 Airplay. Also in its first week, it was aired over 300 times on 43 Radio Stations, reaching an estimated audience in Canada of over 5.2 million listeners.

[2005] The U.S. Billboard ranks "It’s Time" as the Best Selling Jazz recording of 2005 and chose him as the #1 Jazz Artist.

[2005] His self-penned single "Home" reached #1 at Pop and AC radio in Canada and #1 at AC radio in the United States.

A long-time devoted hockey fan of the Vancouver Canucks. Watches Canucks games on his laptop when he is not in British Columbia; never misses any of the games.

The original song "Lost" (from album Call Me Irresponsible) is the sequel to his hit single "Home" (from album It’s Time). While in Australia, Bublé co-wrote "Lost" during the process of ending his eight year relationship to Debbie Timuss, whom he had previously written "Home" for while still together. "Lost" was written as a tribute to his former relationship to Timuss. Before "Lost" was released, Bublé played the song to Timuss. However, his current girlfriend Emily Blunt is the inspiration to the original single "Everything" (from album Call Me Irresponsible).

First met Emily Blunt at the Australian Logie Awards in 2005 and again a few months later backstage with a group of people at his Los Angeles concert.

His grandfather was a plumber who, whenever he fixed something at a nightclub or something like that, did it for free if the owners allowed Bublé to sing there.

Dean Regan’s touring musical, "Forever Swing", was a major factor in launching his early career. His starring role in "Forever Swing" gained huge praise by both fans and critics throughout Canada and the United States.

"Everything", the first hit single from the 2007 album Call Me Irresponsible, boasts the fastest trip to Number 1 in three years on Billboards Adult Contemporary chart.

By December 2004, his self-titled debut album sold over three million worldwide including seven times platinum in Australia, three times platinum in Canada, twice platinum in the United Kingdom, South Africa, Italy, New Zealand and the Philippines, and gold status in Indonesia, Malaysia, Spain, Taiwan and Hong Kong.

Set the record in 2005 at The Sydney Opera House for the most tickets sold in one day ever.

By 2004, he had sold-out engagements throughout Europe, Australia, and Asia, including 3-night sold out shows at the Sydney Opera House’s Concert Hall in April and sold-out an unprecedented 9 shows across Australia; in November 2004, he completed 16 sell-outs in the U.K. alone, most notably two SROs at London’s prestigious Royal Albert Hall.

2007 Grammy Award-nomination: Best Traditional Pop Vocal Album for "Caught in the Act".

2006 Grammy Award-nominations: Best Traditional Pop Vocal Album for "It’s Time", Best Instrumental Arrangement Accompanying Vocalist for the song "Can’t Buy Me Love".

Worked with his salmon fisherman father for six years. On fishing days, which normally began from 4:30am to 11pm with physically demanding work, he would listen on the boat to music tapes of classic standards made for him not by his father, an ardent Bruce Springsteen fan, but by his Italian-born grandfather.

Jobs as a showman included talent shows, conventions, cruise ships, hotel lounges, smoky bars, clubs, corporate gigs, singing telegram messenger, and musical theatre.

Won 2008 Grammy Award: Best Traditional Pop Vocal Album for "Call Me Irresponsible". Nomination: Best Male Pop Vocal Performance for the song "Everything".

Won a 2006 MuchMoreMusic Award for "Save The Last Dance For Me".

On May 16 2007, Call Me Irresponsible was the #1 best selling album in Canada, Australia, South Africa, Europe, Singapore, and the USA. Call Me Irresponsible also reached #1 on the Billboard’s Sales Charts, Internet, Traditional Jazz and Pop charts.

Sang at a wedding for only the second time when he headlined the entertainment at the million wedding of James Packer, Australia’s richest man, and Erica Baxter in France on June 2007. The first time he performed at a wedding was for the Canadian Prime Minister’s daughter in 2000, where he got a record deal.

Sold out 11 shows in a single day when he toured Australia in 2005.

Won two Canadian Smooth Jazz Awards (2008): Male Vocalist of the Year & Best Original Composition of the Year "Everything".

Won 2008 Juno Fan Choice Award. 2008 Juno Nominations: Single of the Year "Everything", Album of the Year "Call Me Irresponsible", Artist of the Year, and Pop Album of the Year "Call Me Irresponsible".

2008 German ECHO Award nomination in category International Pop/Rock Male Artist of the Year.

2008 Brit Awards nomination for Best International Male Solo Artist.

Won 2005 World Music Award for category World’s Best Selling Artist/Canada. 2005 World Music Award nomination for World’s Best Selling Pop Male Artist.

Won 2006 Canadian Radio Music Awards for Best New Solo Artist (Hot AC category – song "Home") & SOCAN Songwriter of the Year for the song "Home".

Won 2006 German ECHO Award for National/International Jazz Production of the Year – "It’s Time". 2006 ECHO Nomination for International Newcomer of the Year.

Broke up with longtime girlfriend Emily Blunt in July 2008. They had been together since 2005.

According to an "Oprah" interview on October 9, 2009, Bublé had dreamed of becoming famous since age two. When he was a teenager, he slept with his bible and prayed to become a singer. The first time that his family noticed his singing talent was at Christmas time when Bublé was 13 years old, and they heard him singing along with them to the song "White Christmas" during a car ride.

Frequently closes his concerts by singing without a microphone. This all began when his microphone went out during one of his L.A. concerts when he was in the middle of singing "My Funny Valentine", the show’s big finishing number. Without missing a beat, Alan Chang, Bublé’s pianist, kept playing his piano, and Bublé did an acoustic version of "My Funny Valentine" that brought down the house.

Engaged to Luisana Lopilato.

Brother-in-law of ‘Dario Lopilato’.

Personal Quotes
You can try to trick the people and come out wearing a fedora and a tuxedo but that’s not me. I was born in the late ’70s, I wear jeans. I don’t hang out in casinos. The lifestyle isn’t my thing. I don’t drink martinis and I don’t smoke cigars.

[His words to Michael McSweeney when he gave him his independent CD in his pre-stardom days]: "If you and your wife like it, great. If you don’t, it’ll make a great coaster".

[About his last name Bublé]: Sounds French, but I’m a very proud Canadian of Italian extraction.

I’ve said it a million times: I would love very much to be known as one of the great entertainers. If that’s me having a big ego, then sorry. I’m shooting for the stars, and if I miss I’ll hit the moon and that’s pretty high.

[About covering songs]: "It’s far more difficult for me to cover a song because you can compare that song with another 400 iconic artists who have recorded it. So it’s my job to take it to a different place. And as an interpreter, I take it really seriously. When I’m remaking a song, I’m aware that I’m not here to sing the song better than Frank Sinatra or if I cover Van Morrison or I cover The Eagles, my job isn’t to sing it better, my job is to make it my own".

[About covering songs versus original music]: "The reason I won’t do all originals is because it is more of a challenge for me to take great songs and to reinterpret them and make them new again. It’s what I do. It’s always what I’ve done and had a passion for."

I don’t just want to cover a song because it’s easy, like ‘Fly Me to the Moon.’ I like that song. It’s a great song. But I don’t want to cover it just because it’s one of the most popular standards. I wanted to take chances and record songs that I thought I could breathe new life into.

I am a candid interview and I have a dark and dry sense of humor – a very Canadian sense of humor and I am only learning now stupidly that you can’t read tongue. When I say something funny in a newspaper and I meant it to be funny, it doesn’t read that way. It is the same if you have ever gotten an e-mail and you think, ‘What did I ever do to make this person respond this way?’ They never meant to be aggressive, but you can’t read the tone. I’ve said things. There were comments about many things I wish I would have said in a different way or a more eloquent way.

[About his former job as a singing telegram messenger]: "Ten out of 11 times they wouldn’t [tip]. They’d say, ‘I want you to sing it louder.’ And I’d be, ‘But it’s a ballad.’"

[About singing jazz music] "I don’t want to be a copycat. What you see is who I am. It’s just me and how I grew up and what I thought was cool. There was always something special about that music to me. It just stood out. I always felt like I was born in the wrong time."

[on becoming successful]: "People told me time and time again that I will not get signed up, that I will never sell record, that I should sing pop and that I would be better off joining the Backstreet Boys. But I have faith in who I am, and in this style of music (jazz). So when people continued to tell me that I couldn’t do it, it just made me feel that I had to prove them wrong."

It offends me when people think I only listen to Frank Sinatra. I was born in 1975 and I never wanted to be part of the Rat Pack. As a kid, my biggest idol was Michael Jackson. As a teenager, I wanted to be one of the Beastie Boys.

When I did my first album, I was marketed as the singer who would appeal to your grandma. But as each record arrived with more power and confidence, I began to sound younger and younger.

Michael Bublé
dating tips for men

Image by Eva Rinaldi Celebrity and Live Music Photographer
Birth Name
Michael Steven Bublé

Height
5′ 10½" (1.79 m)

Mini Biography
Multi-platinum artist Michael Bublé grew up near Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. He was introduced to swing music and old standards by his grandfather, who offered his services for free as a professional plumber to musicians who were willing to let Michael sing a couple of songs with them on stage.

He got his big break in show business after former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney discovered his music. At 10 years of struggling, the discovery came at a time when distraught Michael was considering giving up a career in music and getting a job in media. His performance at a corporate gig in summer 2000 impressed Michael McSweeney, speech writer/right hand man to Brian Mulroney, and told Mcsweeney to feel free to use his independent CD as a coaster if he didn’t like it. Mcsweeney gave the CD to Brian & Mila Mulroney, which led to an invitation to sing at their daughter’s wedding, where he was introduced to music producer David Foster, who took him under his wing.

His self-titled debut album came out February 12, 2003 and has since won several music awards and incredible worldwide success.

IMDb Mini Biography By: Janie Michaud

Spouse
Luisana Lopilato (31 March 2011 – present)

Trade Mark
Ends his concerts by singing without a microphone

Trivia
Won Best New Artist at the Canadian Juno Awards (April, 2004)

Older brother of Crystal Buble.

Last name is pronounced "Boo-blay".

In September 2003, sang at "Blue Note" Jazz Club, in Manhattan’s Greenwich Village, New York City.

Is an international singing sensation. He has gone multi-platinum in over 15 countries. In 2005, he traveled the world over a dozen times, performing sold-out shows throughout the U.S., Europe (including a sold-out performance at the prestigious London’s Royal Albert Hall), Asia, and Australia. His self-titled debut went multi-platinum, and his multi-platinum CD, "It’s Time" (which included the No. 1 Buble-penned smash single "Home") sold over 5.5 million CDs worldwide. As of October 2006, "It’s Time" went 6 times Platinum in Canada, 4 times Platinum in Australia and Italy, double Platinum in Singapore and USA. Platinum in the UK, Austria, Germany, Holland, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Ireland, Switzerland, Taiwan and South Africa. Gold status in Belgium, France, Philippines, Sweden and Thailand. As of 2007, "It’s Time" remained on the Billboard Traditional Jazz Albums Charts for a staggering two years and in the No. 1 slot for over 80 weeks, holding the all time record for highest number of weeks at No. 1 by any artist. The internationally acclaimed hit original song "Home" reached No. 1 on charts in more than 10 countries, including Japan, Canada and Italy. "It’s Time" was nominated for 2 Grammy Awards and was the Bestselling Traditional Jazz Album of 2005.

His self-penned single, "Home" has the distinction of being the most-heard song on Canadian radio in 2005, reaching an audience estimated to exceed 382 million people.

Received two Genie Award nominations in 2000 for songs he wrote for the film Here’s to Life! (2000) starring Eric McCormack.

His debut self-titled CD released in 2003 hit the best-selling charts in more than 15 countries and went Quadruple Platinum in Canada.

Won 4 Juno Awards (2006) for Best Single of the Year "Home", Best Album of the Year "It’s Time", Best Artist of the Year, and Best Pop Album of the Year "It’s Time".

Won 3 Canadian Smooth Jazz Awards (2006) for Male Vocalist of the Year, Album of the Year "It’s Time", and Best Original Composition "Home".

When Michael’s 2006 Valentine’s Day EP – "With Love, Michael Buble"- was released only for a week, the album reached Gold status selling 500,000 copies. The album also became the biggest selling CD Hallmark has ever released, selling in excess of 3 million copies.

[19 January 2007] His album It’s Time broke the all time record for highest number of weeks at number 1 by any artist. It’s Time spent 76 weeks in the number 1 spot on Billboard’s Top Traditional Jazz Albums Charts. According to the Nielsan Soundscan charts, which tracks weekly industry sales in America, both the Traditional Jazz Album and the Current Jazz Album charts lists It’s Time at an amazing total of 101 weeks on the charts with sales exceeding 2.2 million to date.

Is of Italian descent. He has dual Italian-Canadian citizenship. He has stated that his last name is actually from his Italian ancestry. Part of his family is from Treviso (in northern Italy), and the other part of his family is from Villa Santa Lucia degli Abruzzi, Italy. His grandfather Demetrio "Mitch" Santagà comes from the village of Preganziol, Italy.

During preparation for his daughter’s wedding, Brian Mulroney was hesitant to listen to Buble’s CD, given by Mulroney’s speech writer Michael McSweeney after a corporate gig, because the wedding had a long list of entertainment. However, it was Brian’s wife, Mila, who told him to listen to the CD and include Buble in the entertainment list, after which Buble was invited to sing in front of wedding guest David Foster, who later produced Buble’s self-titled album.

In 1996, he landed a role as Elvis in the Vancouver run of a Rock and Roll musical revue called Red Rock Diner, where he became friends with Debbie Timuss, a stage actress, dancer and singer who taught him the choreography. Two years later they became an item and moved to Toronto as part of the cast of another musical revue, this time a big band musical revue called Forever Swing. The hit single "Home" from the album It’s Time was written for Debbie Timuss, whom Bublé has had a near decade long off-again-on-again relationship. Having gotten back together from one of their breakups and away in Italy on tour, he penned "Home" for Timuss, describing his pain from being away from her. She is the song’s background vocalist and is featured in the song’s music video. He referred the album It’s Time as "Debbie’s Record", and a few of the tracks on It’s Time was recorded while he sang to her as she sat outside the studio. They became formally engaged pre-Christmastime 2004 and called off the engagement November 2005.

His father Lewis is a salmon fisherman and his mother, Amber, raised him and his two younger sisters.

At 18, Bublé entered a talent contest in a local bar even though the rules stipulated contestants had to be 19. After he won, the organizer, a local publicist and entrepreneur named Beverly Delich, disqualified him but was so impressed by his talent that she later called him at his parents’ home and suggested he enter the British Columbia Youth Talent Search. He won, and Delich then helped him record an independent CD.

On March 19 2007, his self-penned single "Everything", from album Call Me Irresponsible, made the highest debut in the history of the BDS AC (adult contemporary) charts. In its first week at Canadian radio, "Everything" debuted at #3 on the BDS Mainstream AC Audience chart, and a week later it reached #1 Airplay. Also in its first week, it was aired over 300 times on 43 Radio Stations, reaching an estimated audience in Canada of over 5.2 million listeners.

[2005] The U.S. Billboard ranks "It’s Time" as the Best Selling Jazz recording of 2005 and chose him as the #1 Jazz Artist.

[2005] His self-penned single "Home" reached #1 at Pop and AC radio in Canada and #1 at AC radio in the United States.

A long-time devoted hockey fan of the Vancouver Canucks. Watches Canucks games on his laptop when he is not in British Columbia; never misses any of the games.

The original song "Lost" (from album Call Me Irresponsible) is the sequel to his hit single "Home" (from album It’s Time). While in Australia, Bublé co-wrote "Lost" during the process of ending his eight year relationship to Debbie Timuss, whom he had previously written "Home" for while still together. "Lost" was written as a tribute to his former relationship to Timuss. Before "Lost" was released, Bublé played the song to Timuss. However, his current girlfriend Emily Blunt is the inspiration to the original single "Everything" (from album Call Me Irresponsible).

First met Emily Blunt at the Australian Logie Awards in 2005 and again a few months later backstage with a group of people at his Los Angeles concert.

His grandfather was a plumber who, whenever he fixed something at a nightclub or something like that, did it for free if the owners allowed Bublé to sing there.

Dean Regan’s touring musical, "Forever Swing", was a major factor in launching his early career. His starring role in "Forever Swing" gained huge praise by both fans and critics throughout Canada and the United States.

"Everything", the first hit single from the 2007 album Call Me Irresponsible, boasts the fastest trip to Number 1 in three years on Billboards Adult Contemporary chart.

By December 2004, his self-titled debut album sold over three million worldwide including seven times platinum in Australia, three times platinum in Canada, twice platinum in the United Kingdom, South Africa, Italy, New Zealand and the Philippines, and gold status in Indonesia, Malaysia, Spain, Taiwan and Hong Kong.

Set the record in 2005 at The Sydney Opera House for the most tickets sold in one day ever.

By 2004, he had sold-out engagements throughout Europe, Australia, and Asia, including 3-night sold out shows at the Sydney Opera House’s Concert Hall in April and sold-out an unprecedented 9 shows across Australia; in November 2004, he completed 16 sell-outs in the U.K. alone, most notably two SROs at London’s prestigious Royal Albert Hall.

2007 Grammy Award-nomination: Best Traditional Pop Vocal Album for "Caught in the Act".

2006 Grammy Award-nominations: Best Traditional Pop Vocal Album for "It’s Time", Best Instrumental Arrangement Accompanying Vocalist for the song "Can’t Buy Me Love".

Worked with his salmon fisherman father for six years. On fishing days, which normally began from 4:30am to 11pm with physically demanding work, he would listen on the boat to music tapes of classic standards made for him not by his father, an ardent Bruce Springsteen fan, but by his Italian-born grandfather.

Jobs as a showman included talent shows, conventions, cruise ships, hotel lounges, smoky bars, clubs, corporate gigs, singing telegram messenger, and musical theatre.

Won 2008 Grammy Award: Best Traditional Pop Vocal Album for "Call Me Irresponsible". Nomination: Best Male Pop Vocal Performance for the song "Everything".

Won a 2006 MuchMoreMusic Award for "Save The Last Dance For Me".

On May 16 2007, Call Me Irresponsible was the #1 best selling album in Canada, Australia, South Africa, Europe, Singapore, and the USA. Call Me Irresponsible also reached #1 on the Billboard’s Sales Charts, Internet, Traditional Jazz and Pop charts.

Sang at a wedding for only the second time when he headlined the entertainment at the million wedding of James Packer, Australia’s richest man, and Erica Baxter in France on June 2007. The first time he performed at a wedding was for the Canadian Prime Minister’s daughter in 2000, where he got a record deal.

Sold out 11 shows in a single day when he toured Australia in 2005.

Won two Canadian Smooth Jazz Awards (2008): Male Vocalist of the Year & Best Original Composition of the Year "Everything".

Won 2008 Juno Fan Choice Award. 2008 Juno Nominations: Single of the Year "Everything", Album of the Year "Call Me Irresponsible", Artist of the Year, and Pop Album of the Year "Call Me Irresponsible".

2008 German ECHO Award nomination in category International Pop/Rock Male Artist of the Year.

2008 Brit Awards nomination for Best International Male Solo Artist.

Won 2005 World Music Award for category World’s Best Selling Artist/Canada. 2005 World Music Award nomination for World’s Best Selling Pop Male Artist.

Won 2006 Canadian Radio Music Awards for Best New Solo Artist (Hot AC category – song "Home") & SOCAN Songwriter of the Year for the song "Home".

Won 2006 German ECHO Award for National/International Jazz Production of the Year – "It’s Time". 2006 ECHO Nomination for International Newcomer of the Year.

Broke up with longtime girlfriend Emily Blunt in July 2008. They had been together since 2005.

According to an "Oprah" interview on October 9, 2009, Bublé had dreamed of becoming famous since age two. When he was a teenager, he slept with his bible and prayed to become a singer. The first time that his family noticed his singing talent was at Christmas time when Bublé was 13 years old, and they heard him singing along with them to the song "White Christmas" during a car ride.

Frequently closes his concerts by singing without a microphone. This all began when his microphone went out during one of his L.A. concerts when he was in the middle of singing "My Funny Valentine", the show’s big finishing number. Without missing a beat, Alan Chang, Bublé’s pianist, kept playing his piano, and Bublé did an acoustic version of "My Funny Valentine" that brought down the house.

Engaged to Luisana Lopilato.

Brother-in-law of ‘Dario Lopilato’.

Personal Quotes
You can try to trick the people and come out wearing a fedora and a tuxedo but that’s not me. I was born in the late ’70s, I wear jeans. I don’t hang out in casinos. The lifestyle isn’t my thing. I don’t drink martinis and I don’t smoke cigars.

[His words to Michael McSweeney when he gave him his independent CD in his pre-stardom days]: "If you and your wife like it, great. If you don’t, it’ll make a great coaster".

[About his last name Bublé]: Sounds French, but I’m a very proud Canadian of Italian extraction.

I’ve said it a million times: I would love very much to be known as one of the great entertainers. If that’s me having a big ego, then sorry. I’m shooting for the stars, and if I miss I’ll hit the moon and that’s pretty high.

[About covering songs]: "It’s far more difficult for me to cover a song because you can compare that song with another 400 iconic artists who have recorded it. So it’s my job to take it to a different place. And as an interpreter, I take it really seriously. When I’m remaking a song, I’m aware that I’m not here to sing the song better than Frank Sinatra or if I cover Van Morrison or I cover The Eagles, my job isn’t to sing it better, my job is to make it my own".

[About covering songs versus original music]: "The reason I won’t do all originals is because it is more of a challenge for me to take great songs and to reinterpret them and make them new again. It’s what I do. It’s always what I’ve done and had a passion for."

I don’t just want to cover a song because it’s easy, like ‘Fly Me to the Moon.’ I like that song. It’s a great song. But I don’t want to cover it just because it’s one of the most popular standards. I wanted to take chances and record songs that I thought I could breathe new life into.

I am a candid interview and I have a dark and dry sense of humor – a very Canadian sense of humor and I am only learning now stupidly that you can’t read tongue. When I say something funny in a newspaper and I meant it to be funny, it doesn’t read that way. It is the same if you have ever gotten an e-mail and you think, ‘What did I ever do to make this person respond this way?’ They never meant to be aggressive, but you can’t read the tone. I’ve said things. There were comments about many things I wish I would have said in a different way or a more eloquent way.

[About his former job as a singing telegram messenger]: "Ten out of 11 times they wouldn’t [tip]. They’d say, ‘I want you to sing it louder.’ And I’d be, ‘But it’s a ballad.’"

[About singing jazz music] "I don’t want to be a copycat. What you see is who I am. It’s just me and how I grew up and what I thought was cool. There was always something special about that music to me. It just stood out. I always felt like I was born in the wrong time."

[on becoming successful]: "People told me time and time again that I will not get signed up, that I will never sell record, that I should sing pop and that I would be better off joining the Backstreet Boys. But I have faith in who I am, and in this style of music (jazz). So when people continued to tell me that I couldn’t do it, it just made me feel that I had to prove them wrong."

It offends me when people think I only listen to Frank Sinatra. I was born in 1975 and I never wanted to be part of the Rat Pack. As a kid, my biggest idol was Michael Jackson. As a teenager, I wanted to be one of the Beastie Boys.

When I did my first album, I was marketed as the singer who would appeal to your grandma. But as each record arrived with more power and confidence, I began to sound younger and younger.

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